During the period from beginning of 1960s till 1973 almost 780,000 workers had moved to Western Europe. The vast majority of them were moved to Germany with almost 80 percent. Later, the Turkish policy had changed toward sending workers as well as the European states also stopped receiving workers from non-EC citizens. Yet, the emigration kept from turkey to Europe through the families reunification and asylum seeking who escaped as a result of some political conflicts in Turkey especially during 1980s as a when the Turkish military have got involved in the political process. In addition, the eruption of the violence in south
There were forced migration within and between former Soviet states which led to increase prevalence of human trafficking. The break-up of the Soviet Union stranded many ethnic Russians outside the borders of the Russian Federation which placed them in situations where they faced dire economic circumstances in the successor states, language issues, and discrimination. Instead of seeking citizenship in the new states, they migrated to the Russian Federation. The problem here is that the transportation of human traffickers victims were relatively easy as there were existing transportation infrastructure. Also, as there were no visa required to travel across the former states of the Soviet Union, the people could easily made repeated trips between the states as they save the trouble from administrative work and time.
Human trafficking is the predominate issue in Russia, a Tier 3 country, with an estimated five to twelve million people trapped in sex and labor trafficking. Russia is the leading participant in arranged trafficking from importing and exporting women and children all around the world (United States). Without the resources available to overcome the sex trafficking epidemic, there are 150,000 women and 17,000 children or more relying on prostitution or other services in the sex workforce in order to survive (Tiurukanova 35). Due to the economic needs of women and children, they are forced into sex trafficking in order to survive, leading to the financial destruction of the government as it primarily focuses on increasing the country’s birthrate
DISADVANTAGES OF DOING BUSINESS IN RUSSIA The paper wants to analyse the Disadvantages of doing business in Russia. The analysis starts with an introduction, which provides a general economic overview about the macroeconomic situation in Russia. The research focuses the attention on the five institutional complementarities according to Hall and Soskice in Russia. The last part wants to sum up the main disadvantages that a Business can face when operating in Russia. Russia is the biggest country in the world with a land extension 17,098,242 sq km with 11 different time zones and huge natural contrast among the different regions.
It’s share in the global arms exports are 27% closely behind USA’s whose share is 31% of the world’s arms exports and having a revenue of over $8 billion per year. Also Russian arms exports grew by 37% between 2010-2014 whereas USA’s exports grew by only 23% between 2010-2014. III. Mining Russia is a storehouse of minerals and thus is abundant in minerals and thus has a significant mining
Economic factors such as: wages (labour costs), Interest rates, government policies, laws and/or regulations, and unemployment rate, were very important in determining the flows of international migration beginning in the mid-19th century trough to the 1914. Because with these economic factors, people that were rational that were also willing and able to migrate to somewhere, they would have considered those factors. “Bad or oppressive laws, heavy taxation, an unattractive climate, uncongenial social surroundings, and even compulsion… all have produced and are still producing currents of migration, but none of these currents can compare in volume with that which arises from the desire inherent in most men to ‘better’ themselves in material respects.” Quoted by Ernst Georg Ravenstein in his Laws of Migration.
SOCIAL INTEGRATION PROBLEM OF TURKISH YOUTHS WHO LIVE IN GERMANY Why did they immigrate to Germany? “We asked for workers. We got people instead.” Max Fischer Turkish people started to migrate to Germany as employees at the beginning of the 1960’s. At that time, because Germany needed employees they opened their country to Turkey after Italy, Spain, Portuguese and Greece. At first, main purpose of Turkish immigrants in Germany was work and save money and after that, turn to their hometown, but just a few of them turned back.
The usual thesis is that immigration waves come from disadvantaged countries to places where the wages are higher, the unemployment rate is lower and the economic prospects are better. But in the case of Germany these reasons are not valid, because it is a country with a stable government and economy. Therefore, in this particular case, economic opportunities are not the primary factors contributing to emigration. To understand the reasons behind emigration from Germany, it is necessary to know what kind of people emigrate to other countries. Between 2009 and 2013, 710000 citizens emigrated from Germany, of whom a high percentage were foreigners that moved back to their home country or moved to another third country.
From the 1980’s there was an increased influx of refugees and family reunification immigrants. In later years especially since 2000 the eastwards expansion of the EU there has been a growing influx of people from Eastern Europe (Brøgger and Wiberg, 2006). In his extensive review of studies exploring the topic of immigrant entrepreneurship, Vinogradov (2008)
Moreover, some private sector initiatives attempt to integrate refugees into the workforce, but they do not always end up successful. Finally, from the Syrian civil war, 250,000 unfortunate people have died. When multitudes of people migrate to one country, that country would, in turn, become extremely pressured. “The pressures caused by massive influxes of people can be overwhelming”(“What's Driving the Global Refugee Crisis?”). Every year, Germany alone spends 21.7 billion dollars on anything which is refugee related, and with oncoming demand in Germany, this number continues to grow higher.