Written and published in 2008 by Paul Gootenberg, History professor and Latin American studies at University of New York at Stony Brook, “Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global drug” retraces the pivotal stages of the illicit cocaine trafficking, starting from the boundless coca fields in Latin America to the chemistry laboratories in Europe up until the streets of U.S. cities. The aim of this book review is to provide the reader with a short but detailed insight of what is the main content of the book, by paying particular attention to its structure, objectivity and style.
The Barrio Azteca was formed in El Paso, Texas in the prison system. The gang was formed in 1986 and the gang increased after 1996 because of the rise in the deportation of Mexican criminals from the USA. Therefore, when illegal Mexicans were caught by the police and sent to jail they would join the gang inside the prison. After, they are sent across the border to Mexico they would move up the ranks of the gang and carry out crimes. In the early 2000s, the gang was in control of the prisons in Chihuahua. By 2013, the gang was estimated to have 5,000 members in Juárez and around 3,000 members in the USA. The FBI has concluded that there are Barrio Azteca members in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and reportedly in New Mexico.
When Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, a string of ruthless dictators and weak presidents made Mexico an easy target for its powerful neighbor, the United States. The US swooped in to expand its territory and its popular institution of slavery. By doing so, the US started a war with Mexico that was justified for illegitimate reasons. The Mexican-American War was not justified because the US took Mexico’s land for the expansion of slavery, and justified their taking advantage of Mexico when it was politically weak by hiding behind Manifest Destiny.
“...May the boldest fear and the wisest tremble when incurring responsibilities on which may depend on our countries peace and prosperity…” -James K. Polk. What our 11th president meant by this is that we need to maintain good relations to bring success as this is the opposite of what Mexico wanted. In 1845, many Americans believed in manifest destiny which was the belief that the United States was destined to stretch from coast to coast. As this idea scattered through America, citizens of the U.S. spread with it. Americans going west ran into Mexican territory, where settlement was cheap. These settlers moved in and outnumbered the Mexicans six to one, because of this, tensions arouse. Although the United States war against Mexico may be viewed as controversial, the war was just due to the Mexican government refusing to hear an offer, the boundary dispute, and the 16 American soldiers killed.
The era of president Salinas de Gortari and the transition to free market have gone against the ideologies and goals of the Mexican Revolution. By reading “Mexican Lives” by Judith Hellman we see how Neoliberal policies affected Mexicans from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds. President Salinas goals went against the values of the Mexican revolution by liberalizing the economy of Mexico and selling state owned land to private capital which went against provision Article 27 in the constitution which places strict ownership of land in the hands of the Mexicans. We see in Hellman’s stories how wealthy business owners like Sergio Espinoza and Ruben Ergas in Mexico were negatively affected by the liberalization of the economy. Prior to
As he recounts it in Midnight in Mexico Alfredo Corchado’s experience exemplifies the failures of development and the decline of one-party rule under the PRI. In the book Corchado speaks of how he remembers as a child that Mexico was always on a verge of a great political change and country transformation. Yet he noted that it had never come indicating the people of Mexico also felt as if the change would never come as well. He also cites that in January 1994 people of Mayan descent would rebel against the government because they believed the government only acted in the interests of the privileged few and ignored the poverty and trampled on traditions. This idea shows that PRI only acted in the interests of a few instead of looking at the
The legalization of drugs has been at the center of interminable debate. Drugs have widely been perceived as a dominant threat to the moral fabric of society. Drug use has been attributed as the source responsible for a myriad of key issues. For instance, it is believed that drugs have exacerbated the already weak status of mental health in the United States in which some individuals suffering from mental illness administer illicit substances such as heroin or cocaine in an attempt to self-medicate. Moreover, drugs are blamed for turning auspicious members of the community into worthless degenerates. Thus, vast efforts have been made to regulate the alleged drug problem through various avenues. For example, programs have been created to steer
In his article, “Toward a Policy on Drugs,” Elliot Currie discusses “the magnitude and severity of our drug crisis” (para. 21), and how “no other country has anything resembling the American drug problem” (para. 21). The best way to describe America’s drug problem is that it is a hole continuously digs itself deeper. America’s drug issues were likely comparable to other country’s at one point in time, but today it can be blamed on the “street cultures” (para. 21) that continue to use and spread the use of illegal drugs. These street cultures transcend the common stereotype of drug users, such as low income communities in cities or welfare recipients, and can be found in every economic class and location. They are groups of people who have
Life in Mexico can be very harsh, many people outside of Mexico believe life in the country isn’t as bad as it seems. Over the years the country has changed but still face many problems. The Mexican drug war is still a highly supplied conflict between the Mexican army and drug cartels in Mexico. The country has been one of the main suppliers of illegal drugs that causes discrimination, drug trafficking and many deaths yearly. The question is, how has life in Mexico changed before and after the war on drugs?
The abuse of political power was far more than the questions of bribery and favouritism. During dictatorship, authorities at all levels used their positions for the purposes of private gain, and this was usually at the expense of all those who lived in poverty. Professor Adolfo Gilly states, ‘One contemporary described this figure as “the local authority of the central government, the boss of the town and often its moneylender, house agent, merchant and marriage broker at the same time, and all greatly to his own profit.”’ , ‘They often enriched themselves not only through control over commercial activity, but also through extortion—via arbitrary “taxes” and “fines”’. Charles Curtis Cumberland, historian author writes, ‘Madero stressed the importance of land and social reform, but he soon made it clear that he still favoured an evolutionary development’ , In this case he abused his power by trying to make the lower class which was a vast majority to side with him, without any intention to actually help them. Because of the abuse of political power, people began to uprise against those in power, causing the Mexican
The degree of stability during the PRI reign was dubbed as the “pax priísta”, much of which resulted from the control they commanded over the political arena and the co-optation of dissident groups (Alke Jens 486). Although this period was not entirely devoid of violence, what did exist did not
In spite of the movement to abolish certain potent drugs, narcotics trafficking continues to pose a significant threat to even first-world societies. Nevertheless, the “War on Drugs” within the past few decades has weakened the grasp of drug traders, although this extends beyond the United States. Yet, millions of dollars