The Cause Of Xenophobia

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“Nothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood (Curie, n.d. as cited in Fear, 2015). Nevertheless, it may not be as simple as that since the term ‘fear’ itself is a strong word associated with induction of adrenaline rush, making someone feeling agitated and appears resentful. In general, everyone has minor fear but when it becomes more severe it is no longer known as ‘fear’ but phobia instead (Smith, R. Segal, & J. Segal, 2015). There are numbers of phobias spurred out extreme fear and xenophobia is one of them. Xenophobia is defined as a ‘hatred or fear of foreigners’. The term can be disintegrated into ‘xeno’ and ‘phobia’ which carry the meaning of ‘foreign’ and ‘fear’ respectively by etymologists meanwhile Berezin and Nyamnjoh…show more content…
Several factors have been laid out to probe into the matter. When it comes to identifying the causes of xenophobic outbreaks, failure to accept “otherness”, posttraumatic disorder and unemployment are the issues to be put forth.
Above all, failure to accept “otherness” is one of the major contributions to the development of xenophobia. According to Morna (n.d.), the cause of xenophobia lies in the unwillingness to accept “otherness” together with the distorted ideas of oneself in which the external potential power threatens the vulnerable self. Gradually, the vulnerable self surges and empowers the powerless cruelly. The violence of the Whites during apartheid in South Africa might be an example of this case. Back then, in the earliest colonial incidents of the Dutch colonisers with Khoekhoe pastoralists at the Cape (Cape Town), the discernments of white racial superiority are obvious and the blacks are made into slaves and labourers while the whites are the proprietors (Worden, 2011, p. 74). Blacks and Whites are segregated in a way that the latter is at the top rank while the blacks are at the bottom since they are viewed as obsolete and less likely to be intelligent. It happens due to the thought of
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al, 2012). Tshitreke (1999, as cited in Gomo, 2010) argues that describing xenophobia as an attitude might be distorting since xenophobic attack in April 2008 concerns more with action rather than attitude. Darling-Hammond (2003, as cited in Gomo, 2010) supports the argument by saying that attitude is the initial phase of action and the stages of reaction hold the dissimilarity. Hostile attitude has been linked with practices by a 2007 International Labour Organization or International Organization for Migration (IOM) whereas in sum, United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) argues that the hostility towards migrant groups is affiliated with unjust executions and their ill conduct. Owing to the fact that failure to accept “otherness”, posttraumatic disorder and unemployment are among the causes of xenophobia, the strategies involve in fighting against this outbreak transcend individual’s capability and in doing so, there is a need of intervention of people within the macro society

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