Technological • Information and Communication Technology: household access to the internet has growth from 1.1 million households in 1998 to 4.7 million in 2005-06 – there were 6.7 million active internet subscribers in Australia in September 2006 • Research and Innovation: expenditure on research and development (R&D) in Australia reached more than $15.7 billion in 2004-05 – Australian business accounted for the higher expenditure on R&D about 54%, followed by higher education 27% Environmental • Australia is a large island continent and is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, with a large portion of its plants and animals and ecosystem found nowhere else. About 5% of Australia is national parks that provide excellent places from which to experience such diverse habitats as rainforests, deserts, coral reefs and woodlands, and the plant sand animals that inhabit
India owns most diverse cultural traditions in the use of medicinal and herbal plants. The Indian System of Medicine has reportedly identified 1500 medicinal and herbal plants, of which 500 are mainly used in the preparation of medicines. Recent Export-import study showed that there are 880 medicinal and herbal plant species involved in all-India trade. Of this, 48 species are exported and about 42 spices are imported. Another survey conducted by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, government of India, reveals that there are over 8000 species of medicinal and herbal plants grown in the country.
The country has about 18,000 species of angiosperms, 23,000 fungi, 2500 algae, 1800 bryophytes and 30 million micro-organisms (Kamboj, 2000). Its diversity is unmatched due to the presence of 16 different agro climatic zones, 10 vegetative zones and 15 biotic provinces. In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Folk (tribal) medicines since ancient times. Among these systems, Ayurveda is most practiced and widely accepted alternative system of medicine in India. Ayurveda, dating back to 1500-800 BC has been an integral part of Indian culture.
Biological diversity defines according to article two of The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) which entered into force on 29 December 1993 as the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. Many studies try to estimate the number of living species in the earth starting from 15,000 describe species and 500,000 estimated species (Poinar, 1983) then from 3–5 million (Tangley 1997) and 50 million (May 1998) then last but not least 11 million with around 18000 species described each year (Chapman 2009) .but all studies gives an estimation number according The word recognized the importance of biodiversity for our life, its provide us with use values and non-use values such as food security , sustainability of livelihood, dietary health, medicine , control of infection disease, economics, social and culture importance, climate change adaptations…etc (Groombrige 1992,UN CBD cop10, Edwards and Abivardi1998, Markandya etal 2008, Young, 1992; after Barbier, 1991 ) . Biodiversity lost is a fact nowadays, many reason that affect the loss of biodiversity, Mainly loss of habitat is the Biggest threat that cause biodiversity lost (Murray 2015, Travis 2003, Fleschutz 2016, Groom 2006). Degradation" refers to a change of state with a negative value assessment that is
About 25 species of mammal make their home in the park, including the guanaco, puma, Patagonian gray fox and Chilean Huemul. Some of the world's rarest bird species - the Andean condor, crested cara cara, black vulture and black-chested buzzard-eagle among them - are also found in Torres. Torres del Paine National Park is adorned with beautiful vegetation, including the evergreen Embothrium coccineum, which produces vivid red flowers grouped in corymbs, and Calceolaria uniflora, of striking shape and colors.The park has 7 documented species of Orchidaceae. The park contains four vegetation zones: Patagonian Steppe - Desert shrubs and tuft grasses resistant to harsh winds & weather, Pre-Andean Shrubland - Evergreen shrubs like the edible calafate, Magellanic Deciduous forest - Deciduous Antarctic Beech trees lining the park’s gorges and Andean Desert - Species tolerant to low temperatures and high precipitation. The park is one of the 11 protected areas of the Magallanes Region and Chilean Antarctica (together with four
In the tropics, about 25,000-30,000 species are in use and up to 25,000 species have been used in traditional medicines (Heywood, 1996). In addition, many thousands of species are grown as ornamentals in parks, public and private gardens, as street trees for
It contains 6 economically important species, with much genetic and morphological diversity, and which are cultivated worldwide (Saha et al., 2008). Three of these species are diploid (B. oleracea, 2n = 18; B. rapa, 2n = 20; B. nigra, 2n = 16), and 3 are amphidiploid (Brassica napus, 2n = 38; Brassica juncea, 2n = 36; B. carinata, 2n = 34). Brassica species are characterised by a wide range of adaptations to a wide range of habitats (King, 2005; Hong et al.,
About 960 species of medicinal plants are estimated to be in trade of which 178 species have annual consumption levels in excess of 100 metric tons. Medicinal plants are not only a major resource base for the traditional medicine & herbal industry but also provide livelihood and health security to a large segment of Indian population. The domestic trade of the AYUSH industry is of the order of Rs. 80 to 90 billion (1US$ = Rs.50). The Indian medicinal plants and their products also account of exports in the range of Rs.
Species introductions, therefore, are an essential part of human welfare and local cultures in virtually all parts of the world (McNeely, 2001). South Africa is a biodiversity rich country, ranks as the third most biologically diverse country in the world, but it is also a recipient of a large number of alien species. In common with many other countries, the natural environments in South Africa have been invaded by a wide variety of introduced plant and animal species (Richardson et al., submitted, in McNeely, 2001). Many alien species have become naturalized, surviving in the South African landscape without needing to be tended, and some of these naturalized species have become invasive (Van wilgen et al., 2001). There are 750 tree
Madhya Pradesh the centrally located state in India is aptly called the heart of India. One third of the total area of the state is enveloped by forest and offers a unique panorama of wild life at Kanha and Bandhavgarh. Innumerable monuments, exquisitely carved shrines, the majestic forts & palaces are reminders of a rich architectural past. Bhimbetka, world’s biggest stone inscription the archaeological marvels of Orcha stuns the world. The world renowned Stupa of Sanchi, a world heritage site, is a famous pilgrimage.