He argues that both oligarchies and democracies have a wrong distribution structure. Oligarch believe that wealthy deserve more of the resources, whereas democracy argues for equality of distribution no matter what the person’ merits are. He is against both; neither wealth nor equality is the priority in city-states. Instead, Aristotle states “the good life is the end of the city-state,”, and the good life entails noble actions. (as cited in Miller, 2012).
Sparta had an oligarchy, which means it was ruled by a council of people. A democracy is a type of government ruled by the citizens. The third difference was that girls and women in Sparta had more rights than other Greek girls and women. In Sparta, women could own land and go where they please. The Athenians allowed wealthy girls to go to school, but most were expected to stay at home and learn how to manage the household.
In order to do this, we need to 'know thyself ' and become as learned as we can, knowing the good for all, while also being humble. We are all naturally good people, so we must promote the good in the world. According to Aristotle, however, happiness, his goal for all humans is not that easy to obtain. He claims that "happiness is a certain sort of activity of the soul in accord with virtue (Aristotle, p.12). On the Aristotelian model of how to obtain happiness, it deals a great deal with the issue of particulars.
Hence, it is less real. The corporeal object is the imperfect copy of the form. In Aristotle’s view, sensible objects must exist fully and independently. The traits that contribute to a character of an individual just belong to the object itself, but do not have any link connecting with the world of forms. Aristotle disagreed Plato’s view because it is empirical and on practical grounds.
He believes that happiness is achieved through a life full of virtue as well as the expansion of reason and the ability of greater wisdom. This is why we take various actions, to ensure enough outer goods to obtain health, leisure time and the ability to have virtue in our lifespan. Furthermore, another point Aristotle emphasizes, is that moral virtue is located somewhere between extremes and deficiency. That’s where the Greek saying “παν μετρον αριστον” comes from, meaning everything is good but don’t over or under do it. Keep everything in moderation, except virtue.
And he who by nature and not by mere accident is without a state, is either a bad man or above humanity." (Aristotle) The state therefore is the most important part of anything and man who does not partake in this state is inhumane. Throughout this text, this thought of the state's superiority is a lasting theme that Aristotle continues base the root of his politics off of. In the first chapter of his book, he shows his firm belief of the absolute initiative of the state's stability over anything else in the community such as marriages, children, friendships or anything else that could be of value to those individuals within the state. Another example of his bias for the state is when he states, "The proof that the state is a creation of nature and prior to the individual is that the individual, when isolated, is not self-sufficing; and therefore he is like a part in relation to the whole."
It is a society of highly desirable perfect qualities. It has to be noted that Plato’s “Republic” is said to be the first philosophical utopia. According to him par excellence should also has a place in fathomable world. Ernst Bloch had made a remark that “spirit of utopia” provides the content of the “hope principle”. It is an idea which focuses on better future for the people.
Plato’s republic aims to describe a just state, and in turn a just individual consistently throughout the text. By analogising the justice of the state and the justice of the individual, Plato attempts to demonstrate that a just society will breed just individuals. However, there are certain loop holes within his thought process that can lead one to wonder whether or not his ideas are pragmatic, and could function within a real societal structure- and if human beings given their inherently selfish nature, can adopt the traits necessary in order to achieve justice and the ideal state described in the Republic. Plato described the human soul as a “tripartite soul” where three main qualities seen in the human being, will also be reflected in the three classes of the ideal state. Reason is the highest of the three main qualities, and it forms the class of rulers and guardians.
SELİN ÖZCAN 21001366 PHIL 243-09 The Republic which is written by Plato is a perfect example of “ideal city state and life”; the conformity intended by engaging social settings of an ideal republic. The Republic begins with prologue and clarification generally dialogues takes an important place between Socrates and Plato. In the book, Plato tries to give an answer such questions: What an ideal city states and citizenship also identifying good and just life? Author presents Plato’s ideal and model societies with the help of that questions’ answer. Socrates endeavor to lead his political perspective, with using his confusing and logical questions and answers to define the existence reason of the city and citizens and also their relationship