One of the controversial issues today relates to whether is there any differences or similarities between Fairy Stories and Fantasy fiction. A fairytale is a story within the fantasy genre. Fantasy fiction, on the other hand, is the genre itself. Broadly speaking, Fairy Stories are a type of Fantasy Fiction. Fantasy genre and Fairy Stories have similar characteristics but also they can be distinguished.
To a great extent, Edgar Allan Poe’s writing is for the most part is gothic, as portrayed in most of his work. What is gothic? It’s a type of style that represents dark, fear, horror, though in different ways. Such as there are many types of gothic styles, like gothic architecture, fashion, gothic literature,gothic music, people, and there used to be a gothic language. Gothic Literature is a style of writing that is characterized by components of fear, horror, gloom, and romantic features, such as nature, individuality, and very intense emotion, which can be, but are not limited to suspense and fear.
Another example is the story, Shalken the Painter, where Le Fanu combines fear and horror into one story. In the story, Carmilla, Le Fanu portrays the relationship between a vampire, Carmilla, and her close friend Laura. However, besides their close friendship, Carmilla is described as being very secretive and having very deep desires to have control of Laura. The village itself is Gothic, “overlooks the silent ruins of the town.” (Le Fanu 275). The setting of the story takes place in a town that is pictured as isolated and dark.
The term ‘Gothic’ often brings up certain images into one’s mind namely the supernatural, darkness, castles, love and mystery. Gothic elements are very common in the writings of many writers so far as the 18th and 19th century literature is concerned. However, Gothic genre has been divided in two different types by the recent study on the same. These are two gender-based groups: the male and the female gothic with their respective features and thematic concerns. Wuthering Heights is notable for its settings and its features such as ghosts, violation of graves, revenge motifs, sadism, trapped heroine, villain which rightly place the novel into the genre of Female Gothic.
Early Gothic texts were typically set in continental Europe (especially in France and Italy) because of the supposed differences of beliefs between Southern Europeans and the British. What is more, political implications as well as religious denominations played a significant role in selecting locations for Gothic fiction, since countries with the feudal, Catholic past were perceived as wild and exotic, whereas protestant Great Britain with the developing democracy as rational. According to Reeve (2012: 233): “Gothic is an allusion to or characteristic of the Middle Ages, or, more obliquely, the ‘mediaeval’ or ‘romantic’, both of which are positioned as opposites to the classical”. Pseudo-medieval texts include frequently high feelings, supernatural creatures or events, touches of romance together with such motifs as damsel in distress or woman treated by a tyrannical male. This particular style is not rarely characterised by terror, which involves an atmosphere provoking fear, capturing the reader’s imagination (although literally nothing happens) and horror, which entails an earthy, gory, violent presentation of the macabre.
Unlike many other works of gothic fiction, this story does not take place in your typical abandoned monastery, haunted house or ominous castle. The setting is described as a dark and shadowy place (“black as pitch with the thick darkness”), but the story probably takes place in a house located in an urban area instead of an isolated one. We know this because of the neighbors, who are able to hear the old man cry out at night and then proceed to call the police who later show up at the house. Because the house is so vaguely described, the reader is forced to imagine the setting and that makes it all the more frightening. A classic element of gothic fiction typically involves a threatening atmosphere and it is very important that this is not just part of the background, but forms a crucial part
During the 1800s Dark Romanticism, sometimes referred to as Gothic Romanticism, entered the world of literature. Unlike the writings before this time, Dark Romanticism showed the sinful thoughts that had not been previously shown in the world. Unlike the previous fiction stories or novels such as fairytales that used creative, positive stories to escape reality, these dark and sometimes supernatural writings eluded reality by taking its readers into disturbing and sometimes sacrilegious situations. Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne both used symbols to illustrate elements of Dark Romanticism. The symbols within the stories of these great writers revealed the impending darkness and gloom that characterized Dark Romanticism.
Wuthering Heights comprises all the elements of a Gothic novel. However its characters are not as simple as the average Gothic protagonists. This particular novel deals with an amount of Gothic qualities, like dark settings and extreme landscapes, moonlights and candles, melancholy figures and imprisonment, torture and cruelty, supernatural element, madness, necrophilia as well as a communication between the living and the dead. Jibesh Bhattachayya states out clearly: “That Emily Bronte must have read some of these fictions of the Gothic type is evident from her creation of the mysterious Gondal world in her literary world in her literary attempts. Her passion for the esoteric and the sensational did not seem to have left when she wrote Wuthering Heights.
This woman writer was the progenitor of a new literary form which is “gothic science-fiction.” This means that science-fiction is in symbiosis with the gothic as it incorporates its major tropes. In her novel, she takes the gothic trope of fear in order to express the distress concerning technological innovation and scientific progress/experimentation. Gothic science fiction, therefore, is “a product of cultural anxieties about the nature of human identity, the stability of cultural formations, and processes of change” (280). Frankenstein adopts gothic tropes while infiltrating science in the body of the narrative. Shelley’s text is perceived as an indictment of science which contributes to the creation of human beings/the birth myth.
A charter for the southern section is given to a company of London merchants (called the London Company, until its successful colony causes it to be known as the Virginia Company).’ - (www.historyworld.net). In 1607 the colonisation of the ‘New World’ had began when three ships sail into Chesapeake Bay, sent by the London Company (the Virginia Company after England’s late virgin queen). The sailors on board name the river and the island they eventually settled on after their king, the river being names the James river, and the island settlement being known as Jamestown, however it was first referred to as James Fort. Many devastating sicknesses and famine hit the newly established settlement of Jamestown, the first being in 1607 when disease and hunger struck leaving the numbers of the settlement to only around 40. The second being in 1609 when more newcomers joined the settlement arriving on four different ships, upping the numbers to around 500, after a famine hits the numbers are once again left down to around 60.