Steven Moore 3/12/2016 Atrial/Ventricular Septal Defect Repair Surgical Procedure Task An atrioventricular septal defect is a condition that results in a defect located in the middle of the heart. The condition takes place when a hole forms between the heart 's atrium and ventricular chambers. This defect causes complications and makes it difficult for the mitral valve to regulate blood flow in the heart. The deregulation of blood flow affects the lungs by allowing extra blood to flow into the organs. The heart then has to overwork itself in order to pump this extra blood out of the lungs and will cause the heart muscle to enlarge, leading to high blood pressure and even heart failure if left untreated.
The cardiovascular system also known as the circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels. One of the most important jobs it has is to “circulate” blood. The heart works to pump the deoxygenated blood to the lungs for gas exchange while simultaneously pumping oxygenated blood to the body’s tissues. The blood vessels work to continuously bring the blood to all areas of the body which helps regulate body temperature. The flow of oxygenated blood to the tissues helps deliver nutrients such as amino acids and electrolytes, water and oxygen.
This results in the damage of brain cells and including the cells beyond the spill which then, aren’t able receive enough blood. Common causes of this type of hemorrhage are hypertension, trauma, and the use of blood thinners. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when an artery within the surface of the brain bursts and spills in the space between the surface of the brain and skull. The leakage is most commonly caused by an aneurysm. A transient ischemic attack is also known as TIA or “mini stroke”.
Perfusion : Perfusion is the process of a body delivering blood to a capillary bed in itsbiological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through". Tests verifying that adequate perfusion exists are a part of a patient's assessment process that are performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating a body's skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill. Perfusionists employ artificial blood pumps to propel open-heart surgery patients' blood through their body tissue, replacing the function of the heart while the cardiac surgeon operates.
Cerebral edema is a life threatening homeostatic imbalance that may be caused by many things and can be treated if the diagnosis, recognition and management is timely. (ScienceDirect: Cerebral Edema) There are three categories of cerebral edema: vasogenic, cytotoxic and interstitial. Vasogenic edema happens when there is increased permeability of the blood brain barrier. Some of the most common vasogenic causes of edema include: brain tumors/abscesses, lead toxicity, stroke, diabetic ketoacidosis and hypercapnia. Cytotoxic edema is most commonly characterized by the swelling of neurons, glia and constriction of extracellular space.
There are many things that can be done in order to manage atrial fibrillation such as undergoing certain procedures and taking certain medicine. With atrial fibrillation the medicine can be taken to aid with controlling the heart rate and preventing blood clots. The medication that can be used for this is amiodarone and Propafenone because they are antiarrhythmic. Antiarrhythmic drugs are use help with arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) in the heart. Amiodarone is a group three antiarrhythmic drug which means that it works by blocking the potassium channels which then slows down the cells ability to repolarize but it has properties of all four type of antiarrhythmic.
Blood is one of the most important liquid inside the human body, it has about 4-6 L of blood. Blood circulate inside our body. Losing blood could be really dangerous because blood is liquid that circulate the oxygen inside the human body and the blood wont also circulate which will make the heart stop to pump. Open surgery is one of the cause why people could experience blood loss. Blood loss will occur when an open surgery is preceded, the doctor need to open the layer of skin one by one.
1. Give three different examples of the function of blood. -Blood supplies the body with the nutrients that are essential for the body; such as the following: oxygen, glucose, and insulin. - Blood removes the waste products of metabolism, in terms of creatinine, carbon dioxide and urea. -Blood provides a defense mechanism for the white blood cell count and the antibodies.
This serious compression of nerves, blood vessels, and muscles can cause tissue damage and problems with blood flow. This is due to direct or indirect serious muscle injury, such as a building collapse. This can lead to kidney failure. While someone with extreme trauma has a high chance of developing crush syndrome, there are people who have a genetic predisposition to develop rhabdo. Early treatment of rhabdomyolysis can result in complete recovery.
MitraClip was made to help people who have mitral valve regurgitation, this is when blood begins flowing backwards through the mitral valve. This procedure is not as invasive as the normal treatment for mitral valve regurgitation and allows the patient to heal faster. This procedure consists of, clipping the mitral valve leaflets together instead of being sutured, like they would be in open heart surgery. This procedure like the TAVR is performed through a catheter inserted through the femoral vein. Open heart surgery is still the preferred treatment for mitral valve regurgitation but this procedure is very important to people who were denied the invasive surgery.