The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people 's religious and cultural identities will be the main source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. The political scientist Samuel P. Huntington discussed this hypothesis in his Foreign Affairs article. In his essay, he is trying to make people think that the West are the dominating country and other civilizations and cultures just have to be under the power of the West because they are in conflicts with other civilizations (in Huntington’s view) as if the West is a crisis manager, although he did not literally say that but he indirectly manipulatively used terms and reasons to justify his ideas. His essay included his idea supported by 6 reasons on why civilizations will clash. Huntington
Three Scenarios Constructed from the literary assessment of globalization and ethnic conflict, let us attempt to understand the three prevailing perspectives of ethnic conflicts discerned by Ishiyama: first, globalization and economic integration has perturbed ethno-political forces; second, globalization has augmented conflicts because of a backlash against encroachment of identity; thirdly, the association of globalization and cultural conflict is overstated (Ishiyama 2004). The first view is that globalization and economic incorporation perturbs ethno-political forces. MacManus considers economic interdependence – greater trade and economic flows – as a provocateur of politics and cultural backlashes that have been the seeds of conflict
Introduction Different approaches attempt to explain the reasons of conflict and war in International Relations theory; most of them are related to power, ethnicity, self-interest, or “clash of civilizations”. Unlike power that seeks specifics of conflicts among nations; ethnicity explores the culture-based diversity between nations. The diversity between states might suggest that the states are not guided by principles but rather cultural factors. A number of international relations scholars have formulated discourse about the role of culture in conflict between states, however Samuel P. Huntington’s work on “The Clash of Civilizations?” published in Foreign Affairs of Summer 1993; is the main focus of this paper. Through his work, Huntington has made a significant contribution in shaping the theories of international relations.
This separation solidifies already existing gaps between cultures and people. Despite the issues that differences create when they exist among different groups, people keep their roots strongly in their communities and cultures. People immediately born into a group and grow up seeing existing differences among separate communities. Seeing patterns and differences is human nature making the required multicultural interactions very difficult. Calhoun identifies the individual’s role in cosmopolitanism: “the ideas of individuals abstract enough to be able to choose all their “identifications” is deeply misleading.
Gender roles were another conflict of interest; the European men viewed women as a more inferior gender and did not allow them to do as much as the men while Native's treated men and women more as equals. They also had very different views on religion, with the European's coming from a strong Catholic background and Native's having a more spiritual religion referred to as animism. Contact among the Europeans and Native Americans eventually resulted in the Columbian Exchange which caused huge political, cultural, social and economical changes across the globe. 2. There were many underlying motivational factors for England wanting to colonize the New World.
Therefore, Western prospective has dominated the field of conflict resolution and Western mechanisms of conflict resolution were perceived to be universal and could easily be transported to other societies. However, they sometimes proved to be unsuccessful. Despite the fact that conflict is a natural phenomenon and the nature of issues and the approaches of resolving conflict vary from one culture to another. Interveners can propose more effective strategies if they are aware of the local communities' prior processes for dealing with conflict . Moreover, unlike the previous experiences, the neoliberal political and economic models influenced contemporary conflict resolution methods.
When we think of globalization we often times think of it in terms of interaction economically and politically between people, businesses, and nations. However, globalization also has a cultural interaction aspect which results in the transmission of ideas and values. With this interaction, therefore, societies are not static so cultures are always changing and culture being what it is, the knowledge and characteristic of a group of people, then consists of learned practices of behavior and beliefs. In this submission, I will discuss how globalization is thought to impact culture and this case, the historical culture of whaling in Norway and Japan. The nations of Norway and Japan have been whaling for a long time with both countries primarily whaling for commercial purposes whilst Japan does it not
It is heavily influenced from the Groation tradition. According to this perspective, regimes are much more pervasive and exist in all areas of international relations. Contrary to the conventional structure and modified structural, this viewpoint moves away from realist thinking as it is “too limited to explain an increasingly complex, interdependent, and complex world.” This approach rejects the assumption that the international system is comprised of states and the balance of power is solely due to force. Rather, it argues that elites are the principal actors and that they have national and transnational ties. An example Krasner gives is that the “statesmen nearly always perceive themselves as constrained by principles, norms, and rules that prescribe and proscribe varieties of behavior”.
I. Introduction As being stated by Samuel P. Huntington, the Clash of Civilization is a hypothesis in which the primary sources of conflicts in the post-cold war era are more dominant to the people’s cultural and religious identities. Civilization has three attributes which are the objective elements – language, history religion, customs, and institution; the subjective elements – variable levels of self-identification; and civilization itself is dynamic – they rise and fall, divide and merge. Dialogue between civilizations are also needed and will give significant impacts for not only both civilizations but also for the world. This paper would like to discuss and analyze two cases about the possibility of Post-American World Order towards the potential Dialogue between Civilizations or the Clash of Civilizations theory; and the contribution of Dialogue between Civilizations towards the management of negative impact in this globalization era.
In many organizations, conflict occurs frequently and it is known as the struggle between two or more individuals whose goals are incompatible. Intercultural conflict refers to the unequivocal or implied emotional struggle between two people from different cultural backgrounds, due to over perceived incompatible norms and values. It happens where an issue is viewed by two cultures in different ways. Both individuals try to solve a problem in diverse ways, but none accepts the attempt made by another person. Furthermore, culture represents a shared system of sense, and intercultural conflict contradicts the different shared system that makes sense.