It was called on the members that if any member was attacked by an outside force the other members would come to the defence and set up a unified military command. Chief in Command would be Marshal Ivan S. Konev of the Soviet Union. On May, 1955 the United States and the other members if the North Atlantic Treaty Organization made the decision to make West Germany a member of NATO and let them remilitarize. The Soviet Union saw this action as a direct threat and created the Warsaw Pact. The Pact remained until 1991, it fell apart after each member left.
In the aftermath of World War II, growing tensions and rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union resulted in the Cold War. Having lasted for much of the second half of the 20th century, this state of economical, political and propaganda-based confront, with a lack of military conflict and open hostility, is considered a turning point in modern history. The root cause of the conflict was fundamentally the belief in completely opposing ideologies. The confrontation between capitalism and communism led to an international power struggle that left the world on the brink of disaster. To counter Soviet geopolitical hegemony in the context of the Cold War, Harry S. Truman, President of the United States, developed the Truman Doctrine,
The Cold War soon begins after the end of WW2 when Truman, the successor of Roosevelt became president in 1945 due to ideological differences between the two superpowers, United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War had a massive impact on US politics as could be seen through the creation of political consensus between the Republican and Democrats in relation to the policy of containment that includes the Marshall plan, the establishment of the NATO, the NSC-68 report and also the Truman Doctrine as the response of George Kennan’s containment theory, which caused US politics to be specifically targeted at the Soviet Union. While there are political consensus to contain Communism, the Cold War had primarily polarised politics when McCarthy
Lee states: “ (...) the pact was not necessary for Russia.” Laqueur, an American historian, argue that “it should not be assumed that without the pact Germany would have attacked Russia.” During 1939 Stalin focused on the Balkan States. In the end of 1939, Stalin launched about 20 Soviet divisions against 15 Finish. However, the Soviets experienced humiliating casualties before they were actually successful in taking the land in the beginning of 1940. From 1940 and the first half of 1941, the relationship between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany was becoming evidently worse. Hitler, expressed his view on the Winter War (the attack launched against the Finish) and regarded it “entirely unnecessary”.
Shortly after, in June 1948, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade preventing food, materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin. The United States, Britain, France and several other countries from all over the world contributed to the "Berlin airlift", which consisted in supplying West Berlin with food and other provisions by daily flights. During almost one year, the world was arguing the ethical reasons behind this situation (or the lack of it). Pressured by the public opinion, in May 1949, Stalin backed down and lifted the
Looking at the Berlin Airlift, the Marshall Plan, and the Truman Doctrine can affirm the success of Harry Truman’s foreign policy of Containment during the Cold War. One instance in which Truman’s policy succeeded was during the Berlin Airlift. After World War II, the US, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union split up Berlin, each occupying roughly a quarter of it. In 1948, the US, Britain, and France wanted to combine their zones. To prevent this, the USSR cut off all supply lines to Western Berlin.
Number Event & Year Summary and Rating (Hot or not on a scale of 1-10) Why? 1 The Yalta & Potsdam Conferences - Held during the war, on the surface, the Yalta conference seemed successful. The Allies agreed a Protocol of Proceedings to divide Germany into four ‘zones’, which Britain, France, the USA and the USSR would occupy after the war and bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. - At Potsdam, the Allies met after the surrender of Germany (in May 1945) to finalise the principles of the post-war peace – Potsdam was the Versailles of World War II. Three factors meant that the Potsdam Conference was not successful.
On June 26, 1963, John F. Kennedy stopped in the city of West Berlin in Germany which, at the time, was under American, French, and British control after the city of Berlin was split into four sections controlled by France, Great Britain, United States of America, and the Soviet Union following World War 2. Kennedy delivered this speech in order to reassure the citizens of West Berlin that they had the support of the Western powers such as America despite attempts from the Soviet Union to destroy West Berlin by blockading all roads and railways into West Berlin and constructing the infamous Berlin Wall to prevent those who were living under Soviet control from moving from East Berlin to West Berlin and achieving freedom. Kennedy used this speech to not only show support to the people of West Berlin, but also to show the Soviet Union that the USA and other powerful nations were backing up the citizens of West Berlin who were willing to
This difference made it inevitable for the Soviet Union and the United States to engage in Cold War. However, the depth and the intensity of the hostility between the two superpowers were not inevitable. Due to poor diplomatic decisions and misperceptions on both sides, the extent of the rigid hostility drastically escalated. Had the United States followed Kennan’s advice and responded more firmly to Stalin’s pragmatism plus tried a more sensible negotiation and communication with the Soviet Union, the hostility would have not reached the extent it did in the early
The Soviet leader announced that the citizens of Berlin were now free to cross over the Wall. On November 9, 1989 the East German government opened the barriers (“Berlin Wall,” Encyclopedia Britannica). East and West Germany were officially united in 1990 ("Berlin Wall Built"). “The Berlin Wall came to symbolize the Cold War’s division of East from West Germany and of East from West Europe.” The West saw the Wall as a clear image of socialist oppression. There are still a few socialist countries today, but it is not as popular as it was before the Berlin Wall.