The Panel suggests that teachers discuss the text with the learners to improve their reading comprehension. This approach is said to allow young readers to deeply consider the ideas they are reading. Teachers are to model ways to think about the text which will help learners when they are reading themselves. Recommendation 4- Select texts intentional to support comprehension development. In this recommendation, they emphasise that the teacher must choose the correct texts that will support the goals of teaching and improve reading comprehension.
Top-down gives students a large view of a subject, and bottom up starts with vocabulary and pronunciation. Next they will put words together to make sentences. Finally, the class ends with an authentic text. It’s a good mix up, because depending on the level of the student and the material which are presented. Classifications of Language Skills There are four language skills and they are classified according to whether they are receptive or productive skills .
Therefore, the use of interaction in speaking class is needed in order to augment learners’ speaking ability. Schweers Jr (1999) research proved that L1 is useful to construct better understanding and to have better interaction in class. In this paper, the author examines how the interaction during the speaking learning class. The interaction is related with teaching conversation and communication games. The verbal and non-verbal techniques are also examined to help teacher deliver the communication in the class effectively.
In addition, he states that the benchmark of successful acquisition of language is almost always the demonstration of an ability to accomplish pragmatic goals through an interactive discourse with other language speakers". (Brown 2001, p 267) Reading, writing, speaking, and listening are basic communication skills necessary for effective communication in any environment. In addition, to learn the language we must take an account the four skills integration thus the teacher must know which skill complement the other skills. 3. Speaking skill and other skills: 3.1- Speaking and Listening: Through oral proficiency definition above seen there is a close relationship between speaking and listening, because a proficient speaker of English is who can respond with an interlocutor after a careful
Through my personal experience in learning languages especially English, I learnt that understanding the given reading material is the main key to achieve. Just reading might help increase the student reading speed but in understanding the ideas and collect information as effective as possible. They will be trained to reach the best comprehension for the topic they are reading about. And in attempt to achieve that they will begin using The SQ4R method whenever they are reading. The SQ4R Method provides a systematic way of attaching textbook reading assignments.
One obvious way to do this is, by developing students’ communicative competence through collaborative activities in the target language, the use of authentic texts, and incorporating personal experiences into language lessons (Nunan, 1991). A Communicative Teaching Approach (CLT) considers how students’ best learn language, the strategies and tools that facilitate this learning, and the roles of the teacher and the learners in the classroom (Pan, 2013). For example, teacher can give task to the students and ask them to complete the task in a group which means they need to communicate and discuss with each other in completing the task given. This kind of task is supporting Vygotsky’s theory when he stated that one essential feature of learning suggested is the zone of proximal development (ZPD) where students play an integral role in learning by interacting and collaborating with peers. “Once these processes are internalized, they become part of the child’s independent developmental achievement” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 90).
Reading about CLT made me conscious of its potential for addressing the difficulty in communication that my students had and this is what led me to search about the principles that I've chosen. I will give my own perspective on the use of authentic language, use of games and expressing thoughts and ideas in EFL classrooms. Additionally, I will offer evidence to support my position from literature. My choice of principles is showed in appendix 1. I believe that understanding these principles would allow me to support my learners effectively in their attempts to speak English.
In the pre-reading, the teacher sets a task to create interest in the topic, to motivate students and to prepare them for the text, “What pre-teaching phase tries to do is: to introduce and arouse interest in the topic. To motivate learners by giving them a reason for reading. To provide some language preparation for the text” (Williams, Eddie “Reading in the Language
According to Savignon (1998), there are four components of communicative competence: grammatical (the ability to receive, create, and use grammatically clear messages), sociolinguistic (the knowledge of how to use the language appropriately in different social contexts), discourse ( the ability to select ideas and combine them smoothly into a text ), and strategic (the ability to fix communication breakdowns). The awareness of all aforementioned components may contribute significantly to the learners’ speaking skills development. That is why to help the students to become fluent speakers of the English language a teacher should implement a variety of communicative tasks like unscripted conversations, debates, role plays and simulations, and ranking exercises. To foster the
To begin with, Williams and Harmer (2011) state that motivation is a cognitive factor that encourages students to achieve goals. It is evidence that the goal of two of the observed students is learning English; one is the most participatory student who is active during the whole class, and who tries to answer the questions made by the teacher and some of their classmates. Hence, he demonstrates curiosity to learn how to pronounce new words and his attitude has to do with the awareness of the importance that English has in the world we live. The other student is motivated during the first part of the class; he is interested in the topic because he says that he likes cars, but he lost impulse when the teacher assigns them to draw the mind