According to Edwards et al. (2006) Marx thought that within capitalism there would be an increased divide between the bourgeoisie class and the proletariat class in the future. The proletariats are lower of the two classes, the people who have to work for wages in order to survive. The bourgeoisie are the people in society who controlled and owned the means of production in a capitalist system. Marx believed this divide would happen because the workers are dependent on their wages as a means of survival where as one of the employer’s objectives is to lower wages in order to reduce costs.
Social classes were more of a social relationship rather than a position or rank in society. The bourgeoisie could not exist without the proletariat, or vice-versa. Classes are an essential aspect of production, the division of labor and the labor process. The relationship between the rich and the poor is further contradictory in that it is not just two sets of interests, but there is no resolution of the capital-labor contradiction within the organization of capitalism as a system. As stated by Rummel (1977), Marx observed the society to its main classes, and the struggle amid them as the engine of modification.
‘Focusing on capitalism and wage workers’ “estranged labour,” Marx broke with Hegels “ abstract” emphasis on consciousness and equation of objectification with alienation(Ritzer 2000:96) In the profound theory of alienation Marx continued to answer questions of the development of capitalism. He found that workers in a capitalist society do not possess the raw materials machines or factories in which they work with, but are owned by the capitalists in which the labours have to sell their ability to work in return of a wage. This arrangement of work shows four relations that lie at the centre of Marx 's theory of alienation 1, the worker is cut off or alienated from their productivity and not having any say in deciding what to do or actions to approach the productive activity that is given by the capitalist whom sets the conditions and speed that the labourer should be completing and having complete control the decision if the worker can work or not. Marx saw this as the ‘unequal relation between persons.’ (Ritzer 2000:101) 2, workers are alienated from the product meaning they have no control to how the product is being handled once it has left their station the labour is not free or enjoyable. ‘Marx saw all social life as bearing the imprints of material conditions’ (Ritzer 2002:107) 3, workers are alienated from others and their natural environment.
It is an analytical approach to a class struggle and the problems with capitalism and the capitalist mode of production. The book contains Marx and Engels ' theories about the nature of society and politics, and they say "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles" ALIENTATION Alienation is one of the main ideas from Karl
The great philosopher Karl Marx Started his book “Manifesto of the Communist Party” by arguing the history of the class struggle in the society, he stated that, “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”. He also stated that every rich men and every worker is in a relation through mass of production. In the initial part of Manifesto Marx goes into how society began communal, yet became more unequal as the time went on. Systems, for example, feudalism, mercantilism at last capitalism profited from the use of exploitation. Marx at first showed the idea that economic concerns of a nation derive history and that the battle between the rich bourgeoisie and the hard working proletariats would impel communalism as time goes on.
Marx argues that the division of labor results in alienation, and he focused on the social inequalities between two social classes. Unlike him, Durkheim claims that the division of labor is not necessarily bad for the society, it creates a feeling of solidarity between group members. Marx is quite concerned with how people relate to the most fundamental resource of all, their own power of labor and the problems of alienation. The deprive of the ownership of their labor and their own thoughts, according to Marx, causes the alienation of workers from their nature and consequently causes conflicts between the two social classes. In his opinion, the division of labor and class inequality will eventually bring about the social stratification.
Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels presented a theory in which they instigated the deprived class (Proletariats) to bring revolution and fight for their rights. Hence, the philosophy of Marx was based on the classless society. He also gave the idea of Dialectic Materialism in which he stated that only materialistic factors were responsible for bringing revolution in society and the main dominating factor was economy. Hence, it was obligatory for
Erik Olin Wright’s theory is an adaptation from the classical Marxism to modern-day economies, to ‘scientifically define and clarify concepts such as class and empirically test them”.2 Karl Marx’s theory helps us to understand the fundamentals of society and the reasoning behind the individuals’ behaviour. Within the Marxist tradition, the most salient aspect of historical variation in inequality is the ways in which economic systems vary in the manner in which an economic surplus is produced and appropriated, and classes are therefore defined with respect to the mechanisms of surplus extraction. Erik Olin Wrights theory helps us to understand class at a micro-level comparing to Marx’s analysis at a
It upholds over-optimistic assumptions about individual rationality and thus prioritizes the individual over society. As a direct response to the Industrial revolution, most believe that a society is more than the sum of its individual members and liberalism became the ideology of the bourgeoisie. Socialism is a political philosophy developed by Karl Marx that advocates that the means of production should be owned and regulated by the community as a whole. It is founded on the basis that few elites share all the wealth and that capitalism is a threat to the individual reaching his highest potential. Socialism incorporates social justice and class-consciousness into the ruling system as it declares that goods should be distributed on the basis of need.
In “The Communist Manifesto written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels”, the concept of socialism is also accompanied by the concept of communism. They explained that this concepts are two ideological systems, and how they arise in response to the Industrial Revolution. During the industrial revolution, many capitalist factory owners, meaning the Bourgeoise became extremely rich by exploiting their workers, meaning the Proletariat. The Proletariat exploitation begin from being paid with an unfair wage, working for long hours and where age and sex was no longer a problem. These two ideological systems emerge, with the aim of providing a better situation to workers and to promote an economic growth through different strategies.