In each culture there are moral values which may not be considered the same for other cultures. Such differences may suggest that morality is only a question of cultural taste and that there are no universal moral principles, which brings us to the important ethical concept of "ethical relativism". Cultural relativism is the theory that morality is relative to the norms of its culture. Whether an action is good or bad depends on the moral standards that are practical in this society. An action that is morally right in one society may not be in another.
“Cultural relativism asserts that the beliefs and practices of human beings are best understood by grasping them in relation to the cultural context in which they occur”. Based on this interpretation of morality, each society or culture has its own set of distinct moral codes and standards that are exclusive its inhabitants. Although the standards of morality differ from culture to culture, within the group there are strong expectations and codes of conduct that must be adhered to. Without universal adherence to the group’s codes and standards, there would be no cohesiveness and calamity would follow. External values and moral standards are limited in their application and understanding of morals since everything hinges on culture.
Proponents of this theory do not rely on a set of moral principles to determine how they should think or act. They also argue that; subjective individuals do not have the right to criticize or object to their actions; however, some find it possible to disagree (“Morality and Moral Theories”). The second theory, Ethical Egoism states that “right and wrong is determined by what is in your self-interest; also, that it is immoral to act contrary to your own self-interest” (“Morality and Moral Theories”). Proponents of this theory supports actions that maximizes self-interest. They claim that everyone is selfish because of human nature, which is a week point for this theory; given that morality encourages people to consider the interest and wellbeing of others.
Critiqued for implying that a client’s culture can be understood by the social worker who reads about cultures and asks questions, but the reality is more complex. Not all customers are themselves familiar with their cultural heritage. (Bartoli, 2013) For some, developing Cultural Competence may be a moral and/or ethical consideration, whilst for others, it may be driven by a sense of commitment to political and stated norms of the
4.1.1 Ethical Dilemma Seen in the Character of Five In novel I am Number Four; the Lost Files; Hidden Enemy found Ethical dilemma of Five. He was faced two choices between prove loyalty or save his friend. This ethical dilemma concerns on Five’s personality which takes his moral values in determining process. Five’s ethical dilemma looked in three ways that are dilemma about himself, about society and about two right options which means every course is right. It will described at below.
The critiques will involve pointing out the errors together with the mistakes that one feels is a core principle in the cultural activity. If cultures were not making mistakes, then there would be nothing much to criticize. The major drawback with the no cultural criticism is that most of the dominant cultures around the world usually get criticized. Also, any given religion must be criticized when it commits an offense. For a given tradition to grow, there must always be some criticism.
This high pressure situation provides participants with the opportunity to decide between two options, both having ethical consequences. The pressure of the situation can impact the result and outcome and can alter the moral decisions a person makes. Over time, as a person 's cognitive ability develops and becomes more efficient, a person will likely make more thought out and high quality decisions. A human brain must develop and people must learn in order to achieve the most efficient cognitive abilities, leading to more moral decision making. A person 's brain has to gain knowledge and experience in order to make quick and sound decisions, meaning biology does not play a role in the forming of a person 's morality.
In order for a law to be valid it must uphold and support these basic goods, in order to help create a common good for the population. Since the law “you will not stand on the blood of your neighbor” protects an individuals right to life, which is the first basic good on Finnis’s list, this law is a valid law. In addition this law is valid because it also fulfills the basic good of practical reason, through the emphasis it places on watching out for other people thus fostering common good for society. Instead of focusing on the principles underlying the content or the goal of the law, Fuller chooses to explain a law’s validity based on procedural principals. According to Fuller, a law is only valid if it is enacted using the eight universal procedural principles, such as clarity and publication of the law .
Empathy is important in culture differences because it is about understanding and accepting another culture that is different with yours instead of judging the culture whether good or bad and adapts to the foreign culture. (Adler, 1991) Without understanding and accepting culture differences, it will form intercultural barriers such as ethnocentrism. (Donald B. Pope-Davis, 2013) Ethnocentrism is a social bias which views own culture is superior compared than others cultures. Every individual holds ethnocentric behaviors. The degree of ethnocentrism will influence one’s intercultural competence to communicate efficiently and successfully in social context.
Ergo, diversity and the individual are not mutually exclusive concepts. Yet, on one side of the spectrum, too much focus on the individual devalues one 's cultural practices and does not epitomize cultural diversity. When this is done, people become color blind and invalidate one 's background in a assimilative nature. The individual creates diversity with their background so he or she should not be ignored. Promoting and preserving social differences is the essence of multiculturalism which I believe is the true quintessence of cultural diversity.