1. Introduction Identity can take many forms in the society, from gender and sex to culture and family. Not only does identity define who we are but identity also influences the position we have in a society. When we talk about our identity in relation to culture or values, we often refer to the ethnic element. Ethnicity is a form of identity (based on Max Weber’s definition): “members of a group see themselves as similar and are perceived by others as similar by sharing physical resemblance and/or common customs and ancestry” (Hechter, 1976).
Identity refers to how people define themselves and others and this can include factors such as age, social class, religion and personality (Jenkins, 2008). Identity can also be defined by race, this is particularly important for this study. Racial identity has been described in terms of a biological category (Spikard, 1992) and from a social dimension (Helms, 1995; Spikard, 1992). When described as a biological category race consists of individuals “physical features, gene pools and character qualities” (Spikard, 1992, p.14). Europeans used these features to group people hierarchically by their physical abilities and moral quality and Caucasians were the pinnacle (Chavez & Guido-DiBrito, 1999).
The Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model by Sue & Sue (2012), is an active example to understand clients’ attitudes and behaviors toward themselves and their culture as well as the culture of others. According to West-Olatunji, Frazier, Guy, Smith, Clay & Breaux (2007), “This model poses the following questions (Sue & Sue, 2003): (a) With whom do you identify and why? (b) What culturally diverse attitudes and beliefs do you accept or reject and why? (c) What dominant cultural attitudes and beliefs do you accept or reject and why? and (d) How do your current attitudes and beliefs affect your interaction with other culturally diverse clients and people of the dominant culture?
Karen Fog Olwig claims that “integration concerns not only the particular processes of adaptation that migrants experience when they adjust to life in a new society. Integration also refers to the more general processes of adaptation that all individuals must go through if they are to become part of a functioning society” (Olwig, 2011, p.11). This clearly highlights the mutuality between natives and non-natives that integration calls for, and cannot be seen as only a one-way process. However, the understanding of integration suggests many variants, such as assimilation or adaptation. Hence, we have decided to base this concept on Ivy Schousboe’s understanding, which involves four aspects of integration, namely cooperative integration, assimilating integration, fragmented integration and formal integration.
1.0 Part A 1.1 Multiculturalism Multiculturalism consist of ‘multi’ means multiple while ‘culturalism’ means individual person determined by their own cultures. The definition of multiculturalism is each individual came from different backgrounds, ethnicities, races, cultures or identities within a society in the world. It also emphasized each person may have similar or differences in cultural context which should be in concerns stressed the view amid in the community. Multicultural counselling is aware of each client cultural ethnicity or races which counsellor understand and provides help in making efforts to prevent prejudices affecting clients’ daily life. As an example, counsellor needs to aware own culture whether will contradict with
‘Intersectionality’ has two major focal points which are identity and difference, and inequality and oppression. The scholars Brah and Phoenix (2004) understand ‘intersectionality’ as an interconnection of a multiple axis of differentiation found when observing at categories’ of identity. They further extend the definition by adding that social analysis’s should look at a specific historical context. Taking the analyses of ‘gender’ into consideration one can see how historically the gender binary found in society has changed and developed. Society at large seems to categorise on the basis of biological
The use of language and identity are conceived as two different concepts that fall under the common roof of socio-culture. Much like the older days, our language is based on and shaped by our historical background and socio-political contexts. Until this day, the way we speak is quite similar to the way our ancestors spoke, for the simple reason that is we initiate from the same natal country or share the same culture. These findings pushed scientists to conduct further research in order to understand the real connection between language, identity and culture, which we will be investigating in the following blog. Language and Social Identity Whenever we speak, a part of our social history as individuals shines through the language we use.
Here self is hidden under many layers, it is hidden under many artificial ‘selves’. People share the same experiences of history and ancestry. According to this position of identities, he highlights same experiences of people about history. They provide us oneness, present people as “one” with fixed, the unshifting and the constant structure of meanings. Now Hall explains this position is applicable to understand feminism and anti-colonial context, but the second position is more appropriate to unveil the real trauma of people with shifted identities (223).
In the wide sense, the term of ethnic identity refers to the individual’s subjective feelings of belonging to a certain ethnic group. These feelings are strongly interrelated with personal well-being. According to Phinney, ethnic identity consists of several elements like ethnic self-identification, sense of belonging, knowledge of history and traditions, positive or negative attitude towards one’s ethnic group, etc. The ethnic identity can be achieved by the active process of exploration (a process of collecting information, investigation and learning about one’s ethnic background), evaluation (dealing with received information by providing reflection), and commitment (developing a sense of ethnic membership and building positive attitude towards it). Here, it is important to mention that the ethnic identity plays a central role for those people who belong to ethnic minority groups.
Although criticism has a long history in general, translation criticism based on a framework is almost a new discipline that carries some objectives stated from different views. Based on Wodak (2001), the purpose of CDA is "analyzing opaque as well as transparent structural relationships of dominance, discrimination, power and control as manifested in language. In other words, CDA aims to investigate critically social inequality as it is expressed, signaled, constituted, legitimized and so on by language use (or in discourse)" (p. 2). Then, Fairclough and Wodak (1997) elsewhere pronounce the aim of CDA as making "the ideological loading of particular ways of using language and the relations of power which underlie them more visible" (p. 258). In addition to the above cases, according to Bloor and Bloor (2007) the aims of critical discourse analysis are as