Arising from these challenges came a certain crisis of masculinity where traditional and previously unproblematic notions of masculinity were now being seen as problematic (Page, 1999). Masculinity is contexted in gender relations, the practices through which men and women engage, and the effects of these practices in bodily experiences, personality and culture (Connell 1995). Masculinity is interpolated by cultural, historical and geographical location, and in our time the combined influence of feminism and other gender movements has exploded the concept of uniform masculinity. Even sexuality is no longer held to be fixed or inborn. When we relate masculinity to culture it immediately becomes evident that in terms of acting out, masculinity is a varied, movable, even unstable, construction.
Gender Roles can be defined as roles society expects people to play on account of their sex life. Like all roles, gender roles are made up of sets of expectations, so they can be thought of as sets of expiations, so they can be thought of as sets of expectation that are attached to sex. (pp: 220 John E. Farley & Michael W. Flota). Gender roles are separate patterns of personality traits, mannerisms, interests, attitudes, and behaviors that are regarded as either male or female by one 's culture. Gender roles are also exist with respect to interpersonal behavior (it still common for men to ask women for dates than vice versa).
Throughout history, people have portrayed men and women differently often requiring of the former masculinity and of the latter femininity. Society often tries to assign specific traits for men and specific traits for women. The value of a women is different than a man’s value. This leaves society with the question, “What does it mean for a man to be masculine and a woman to be feminine?” Are these phrases established to help us identify genders? In society, it is intimated that men have to possess the masculinity gender and women have to possess the femininity gender.
His occupation and location gives him privilege and freedom thus allowing him to make impulsive decisions and disregard the possible consequences. David objectifies every woman he meets, thinking of them only in terms of their physical appearance. In addition to objectifying women, David also believes that it was a man’s duty to please women by desiring their beauty. For instance, David assures himself that he is helping Melanie, justifying to himself that her beauty is meant to be shared. However, this is contradictory because it uncovers the fragility of David’s masculinity through his need for female validation.
The two concepts that fit best to explain the problem in this study are Hegemonic Masculinity and Behavioral Mimicry. Hegemonic Masculinity delineates the “real men” value in a patriarchal culture, dictated through masculine gender roles such as strength, aggresion, or dominance. Masculinity then becomes a preferable identity inside rock subculture, a nod to the hierarchial concept of identity as explained by Adams and Dickey (2000). This identity hierarchy results in women’s inferior position that further acts as a motivation for women to adhere to masculinity as their ideal role. Further, Behavioral Mimicry concept delineates the process to adapt to masculinity.
Subverting the Normative, Idea of Gender, Sexuality and love in Jeanette Winterson’s ‘Written on the Body’ Body plays an important role in describing ones identity. One with breast is considered to be women and one with penis is man these are biological identifiers to determine ones sex. Terms, for example, he/she, his/her is related to recognize the sexual orientation of man or women and when such parallels are expelled then it becomes difficult to distinguish ones gender. Such an endeavor is made conceivable in Jeanette Wintersons fictitious world in her most fascinating and controversial postmodern novel ‘Written on the Body’ by its genderless narrator. Consider, what if the normative structures of society are seen in different ways?
Connell (1995: 78) reinforces the idea that hegemony relates to cultural dominance in the society as a whole and thus within the overall framework there are specific gender relations of dominance and subordination between the groups of men. One may note that oppression positions homosexual masculinities at the bottom of the gender hierarchy among men. According to Connell (1995:78), ‘’gayness, in patriarchal ideology, is repository of whatever is symbolically expelled from hegemonic masculinity , the items ranging from fastidious taste in home decoration to receptive anal pleasure’’ (Connell, 1995: 78). Thus if one looks at masculinity from a hegemonic lens, being gay or homosexual is easily and effortlessly assimilated to the notion of femininity and can thus lead to ferocity of homophobic attacks within a society (Connell, 1995:
The second chapter, ‘Sex sells’ talks of how traditionally the term ‘sex appeal’ was used to refer to female alone; but nowadays, many an ads portray men as sexual objects with definite vital statistics. The age-old adage "sex sells" exists even in the 21st century ad environment. The notion is that sexual or sensual themes appeal to people 's natural, raw desires for physical contact, romance and relationships. Health and beauty items, fashion and alcohol are some products, often marketed with sexual appeal. The chapter, ‘Adventure appeal’ is directed towards giving the impression that purchasing a product will change the individual’s life radically and fill it with fun, adventure and action.
Sexism is defined as the attitudes based on traditional stereotypes of gender roles. In a society that men and women are competing for the same business position or looking at the big picture all genders having the same rights why are women used as sexual objects? In the “equal society both men and women live in”, the women are portrayed differently through media. Media plays a significant role in creating the social norms. Media has become an indispensible part of our lives that we do not even realize the subliminal messages inside the ads.
Sexual preference and practice are common topics in popular songs, exploiting women primarily. Women in modern music, prominently the rap genre, has dramatized sexual experiences with vulgar descriptions and labels associated with the women involved, detrimentally influencing younger audiences and even older listeners to use such shallow and derogatory language in reference to women. The entertainment industry has rendered men with power and higher authority in cinematography, videography, comedy, and other forms of entertainment. The industry normalized men being leading roles, creating a preference for men, thus a norm is established. Historically men have dominated entertainment from Charlie Chaplin to George Clooney.