2.4 Related Studies Gender stereotype and Feminism One of the related study is Gender Stereotyping in the Third World by Ishita Mukhopadhyay (2011). She claims that Concentration of female employment in specific job types is the phenomenon associated with construction of gender stereotypes. As well, various professions have also been related to severe gender stereotyping. The current paper tries to build an evaluation of gender stereotyping, whilst setting forth its departure from existing segregation measures. The paper then tries to assess and analyze the extent of stereotyping in some countries.
Each category not only interacts with the others but also is associated with a predominant meaning among society, typically either negative or positive depending on the socio-political context of the time. Within this framework (referred to as intersectionality), the experience and impact of gender are mediated by such categories. The term "intersectionality" was popularized in the 1980s as a part of feminist scholarship and critical race theory that
Feminist analysis starts from the significance of gender, gender maybe understood in different kinds of ways but all feminist analyses take gender seriously and when they are thinking about gender they are thinking about ways in which the world can be organized into gender categories such as masculinity and femininity, and the feminists are thinking of ways in which those categories are operating in the terms of hierarchy and in some ways institutionalize and perpetuate some kinds of inequalities. Feminist analysis start from gender as a hierarchical or relational category and it tries to look at the world in that perspective. The feminist theories in international relations were introduced in the late 1980s and early 90’s (cite) and the early
Queer theory was developed by Judith Butler in her post-modern feminist text, “Gender Trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity” (Horitar, 2015). She discussed the role that gender and sexual orientation play in the way in which society uses this concepts in order to place individuals in a specific category on the basis on how they behave (Guantlett, 1998; Horitar, 2015). This theory examines the diverse ways in which current beliefs serves to reintegrate societal anticipations of gender identity, appearance and sexuality, it also offers a negotiation for the fragmentation of constructed gender categories (Horitar, 2015). According to Western society, sex defines your particular gender (feminine or masculine) which in turn defines your true identity, for example a biological female is considered to be a women who is anticipated, by their society, to be more sensitive and nurturing than a man and who needs a sensual relationship with the opposite sex (Horitar, 2015). This notion was rejected by Butler because according to her gender should be regarded as a performance and not as a category (Guantlett, 1998; Horitar, 2015).
The second model of gender, which I call “categorical theory”, treats women and men as pre-formed categories. This approach often appeals, explicitly or implicitly, to the biological difference of the sexes as the explanation of social behaviour. The focus is on some relation between the categories, which is external to their constitution as categories. This is, for instance, the logical structure underlying most discussion of equal employment opportunity. It is also found in much of the discussion of sexual harassment and gender violence.
According to the English Oxford Dictionary, intersectionality is the, “Interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage” (Oxford Dictionaries, n.d). Intersectionality is a way of acknowledging and comprehending that everyone’s identity has more than one attribute or social category; it’s how everyone experiences their own identity in their own unique way. For instance, in the article, Why intersectionality can’t wait, the writer Kimberlé Crenshaw, talked about a group of black women who prosecuted General Motors for discrimination (Crenshaw, 2015). Crenshaw spoke about how
Research on gender and sex in the field of discourse analysis had its beginnings in the 1970s (Wodak 1997). Its initial focus was to identify the instances of sexism present in the language use, based on the assumption that the linguistic system reflects the discrimination of women in the “patriarchal structure of […] societies” (Wodak 1997). At present a more comprehensive perspective is adopted: while analysts still seek to identify the power relations expressed through linguistic occurrences, the underlying assumption that women are always incapacitated in discourses, is not considered legitimate anymore (Sunderland 2006). In the following theoretical section of this paper, a detailed account of gender-related questions concerning language use and discourse, as well as a brief characterization of the feminist movement, whose contributions to the ongoing changes in the social landscape are particularly prominent, are
The Journal, “Feminists of International Law and Their Critics”, by Hilary Charlesworth seeks to address the relationship of women and international human rights law. This journal also tell about feminist critiques of International law. This Journal consists of four parts which are the first part is about Feminist Criticism of International law that in this part according to feminist analysis of International law has divided in to two major roles which are deconstructive and reconstructive. Second part of journal is the incoherent critique. Third part is about the essential critique.
Furthermore in defining intersectionality, Hill Collins (1998: 27) argues: That scholarship in the 1980s and 1990s increasingly focused on uncovering connections amongst systems of oppression organised along axes of social class, gender, race and nationalism. Within the paradigms of intersectionality, any specific locations, social location where such systems meet or intersect generates a distinctive group history or experience Hill Collins(1998) further expatiates her argument by stating that, “ for example, intersectionality holds that knowing a woman lives in a sexist society is insufficient information to describe her experience; instead it is also necessary to know her race, sexual orientation, class, etc. , as well as her society’s attitude toward each of these.” Therefore the application of intersectionality is exclusive to experiences of women, it is excludes the male experience with regards to elements of gender, race, class etc. This scholar will apply intersectionality to strictly in analysing the intersection of race and gender that are limited to the study. The inclusion of political economy of the media and other social and political factors would be useful in applying intersectionality, however they would be too broad and extend the scope of the study.