It is necessary to understand the process of communication to draw a borderline between literal and metaphorical language. When speakers would like to describe something about a reality or experience in the world, they start by means of cognitive process in their minds. The speakers proceed to form the proposition as concise and relevant as possible for conveying the idea. Proposition is the idea or notion about something which is going to convey. In order to communicate this proposition, they will encode it by using linguistic codes which are conventional to pair the meaning of the idea with physical forms (text, utterance).
One way to solve this problem is to find a new rhythm in local language. Secondly, it is necessary to know the object and subject in the activity of translation aesthetics. The subject of translation aesthetic are translator and reader. At the first step, translator is required to have a special capability of aesthetic. It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text.
Eichel explains to the reader something that a scholar would already know. Later on, Eichel writes another explanation: “More generally, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight presents challenges to any translator or audience intent on studying alliterative poetry, Middle English literature, or Arthurian romance. The author’s usage of multiple literary genres and methods, from romance lays to Christian and pagan symbolism” (1). Andrew Eichel explains numerous times things that a scholar would already know and understand, therefore a reader might assume this essay was written for the average person. Later in the essay, however, Eichel
After that combine the sounds and pronounce the word. Later he/she will think the meaning of the word. Top down Opposite to the bottom up process, top down process will decode meaning by, drawing on the listener 's own prior knowledge and expectations. This emphasizes on when we use knowledge of grammatical, syntactic and lexical rules to make meaning of what we want say. So we know Language processing involves the reconstruction of meaning through prior knowledge.
Text can be both written language and spoken language such as poem and conversation. The description of language or the text is to convey the idea, to create relation and identity between people and to explain the idea of the language. To study the text is to survey what is in the text and how text is coherent. The social practice represents the understanding about the role of ideology in term of the relation between language and society in each culture. It creates discourse practice which contains the text production’s process.
Once the data are collected, codes are given to certain values or concepts in the data. Certain words or concepts or chunks of texts are coded as required by the researcher. The analysis beings as soon as the questions begin. Concept related to collection of similar codes together and then foreign a concept. The concepts can then be further grouped to form a category and collection of categories with lead to formation of theory (Bernard, 2010).
Thus, as far as primary rules are concerned, Hart argues that there is a need for certainty, so that these rules can be applied by general public without any official guidance. There are a number of defenders of rule of law who have emphasized the need for the same kind of safety. He also discusses clarity as to which norms are to be declared as law. Hart had earlier argued that rule of recognition serves a very important purpose in peoples’ understanding of which rules can be secretively enforced by the society. However, in the Postscipt of his book, the Concept of Law, he says that the need for certainty is not a requisite condition.
The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002: