As there are different translation models, it goes without saying that translated works are based on the theories that such models have been theorized upon so the translated works are reflections of such underlying theories. A modest attempt has been made in this study to analyze translation quality models from the point of view of practicality. First, some general ideas and intentions for making translation evaluation will be discussed. Secondly, some critical, theoretical issues which can give us a better understanding of educational contexts, and which are related to carrying out a translation evaluation, will be argued. Then, a translation of Macbeth by Dariush Ashoori will be analyzed to see how a talented translator can convey meanings in the target language with following similar rhythms and forms of the source language in the target one.
Domestication and foreignization are two translation strategies; they deal mainly with the extent to which a translator makes a text observe the cultural norms and values of the target language and culture. Hence, they supply both a linguistic and a cultural guidance. Debates over domestication and foreignization have existed for a relatively long time. However, the first person to term them as such was the American translation theorist Lawrence Venuti in 1995 in his book The Translator 's Invisibility: A History of Translation. Domestication seeks to reduce the peculiarity of a foreign text for target language readers, while foreignization seeks to have a target text intentionally go against and break target conventions by retaining foreign
There is a gap between the literal meaning of a sentence and the speaker’s meaning or intervention in an utterance. When studying conversation, other factors other than the literal meaning of the words and the meanings that come up from their combinations also determine meaning. These other factors are what is called context. Communication involves a sender and receiver and the sender usually has an intention to cause the hearer to do something or understand something by getting him/her understood that the sender is trying to cause that thought or action. Therefore, communicative intention and the interpretation of utterance include all aspects of inferences and implicatures.
First of all, translation pass from the translator 's world perspective and experiences, hance two different translations from the same book will have distinct interpretations, which involves differents readings and purposes. To translate is a crossing between two cultures, thus translators must consider not only linguistic elements but also cultural elements from the source language and the target language. Therefore, the translational act will involve the cultural background of each translator and their knowledge concerning the source language 's social and cultural
This is a research about Pragmatic Equivalence in the English Translation. Three theories will be applied in this paper; they are very connected with the title to show some of the steps and ways that must be taken in consideration when a translator begins to translate. Pragmatic equivalence: “Pragmatics refers to the meaning of words in context, to the appropriate use of language according to tongue, culture and situation. It refers to the intended meaning behind the surface, semantic meaning.” (Hale, 2004, P.5). Translators should not only translate the semantic meaning, but they should also interpret the pragmatic meaning of utterances.
II. Importance and Purpose of Intertextuality Intertexts are employed to attain some definite goals by the texts writers. According to these goals, the text writer subjects the intertextual references to some changes. In this vein, Morgan  confirms that Kristeva’s most essential contribution to the notion of intertextuality lies in “... the idea that an intertextual citation is never innocent or direct, but always transformed, distorted, displaced, condensed, or edited in some way in order to suit the speaking subject 's value system”. Morgan  sees that Intertextuality is meant to be a source of having a unique effect on the text receiver such as ambiguity, humour, nonsense, obscurity, etc.
In a book review, plot summary only provides support to the primary analysis of the book’s content. It is incorporated only when necessary, or presented as a brief segment in the start of review. A book review is also not just a book summary. A book summary for non-fictional work briefly refers to the main point covered in the book, whereas for fictional work it describes the plot summary, theme of the book and main characters. 2.
Translational Equivalence When we attempt to analyze the various dimensions of translational studies, we would surely find out that translational equivalence or equivalence in translation is one of the most researched and discussed topics. Translational equivalence is the style of translation where the sense or situation of the original term is replicated through the use of different wording (Vinay and Darbelnet, 1995). This sense of the original and its translated word are equivalent and similar. Precisely, equivalence in translation is represented by the corresponding expression of a word in another language. Theorists, linguists, and experts have tried to categorize the translational equivalence into different parts.
Hence, these individuals who speak different languages must have different wold views. It is the idea that what one perceives is dependent on the language spoken by the individual person. Linguist Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin Lee Whorf are basically known for the popularization of this theory. Therefore it being called the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis also known as the Theory of Linguistic Relativity. Their writings state that there is a clear connection between language and thought.
1917) in his A Linguistic Theory of Translation (1965), defines translation as the substitution of source language text material by an comparable target language material. He defines translation as an equivalence relation. He (1965: 21) states that “the central problem of translation practice is that of finding TL translation equivalents. The core of translation theory is that of defining the nature and conditions of translation equivalence”. Catford’s theory of translation is a theory of meaning.