Title: A critical study: How Edward Said explicated the predicament of Exile through the works of 20th century novelists. Introduction: Postcolonial theory is the body of theoretical work, which is a study of colonial discourse and is usually called ‘postcolonial criticism’. It has pointed out the historical effect of colonialism and criticizing their persistence in contemporary culture, politics, philosophy and literature. So the attempting to discuss the theory of the postcolonial throughout critique various forms of imperialism and open a space for such critique because the theorists have struggled to accept the resistant power of the individual postcolonial means. However, the greater significance of postcolonial theory has been considered of the epistemological implications of the theme “Exile”.
Hybridity: Hybridity usually defined as “the creation of new trans-cultural forms within the contact zone produced by colonisation” (Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffin, 2003). It takes many forms comprising cultural, political and linguistic. Ben Okri records a modification and addresses hybrid cultural models in The Famished Road. He connects the hybridity with structure that shapes the narrative. He states that “One of the strongest impulses which made me write The Famished Road is that I got tired of the traditional artifices and realism of the novel.
The text imaginatively captures what it means to be an exile, an illegal migrant in a hostile Western culture. Jeff Lewis in his article, “From Culturalism to Transculturalism” tries to clarify the concept of transculturalism. Lewis argues that, By its emphasis on the problematic of contemporary culture, most particularly in terms of relationships, meaning-making and power formation... transculturalism is
4. The Besieged City This intended invasion, as Stephen Arata points out, is linked to the cultural fear of Britain being in decline towards the end of the century (622). This "pervasive narrative of decline" (Arata 623) is thematised in Dracula and other late-Victorian literature through the "narrative of reverse colonization" (Arata 623). As the name already suggests, reverse colonisation deals with the fear of the coloniser becoming the colonised through the invasion of a more "primitive" culture (Arata 623). However, according to Arata, reverse colonisation is not only rooted in fear but also stems from a cultural guilt: "In the marauding, invasive Other, British culture sees its own imperial practices mirrored back in monstrous forms"
The essay first explores the representation of power in the novel as it relates to certain binaries such as ‘self’ and ‘other’; ‘just and ‘unjust’; and ‘powerful’ and ‘vulnerable’. Secondly, the novel’s resolution of key conflicts and how alterities are affirmed will be discussed. The Oxford English Dictionary defines colonialism as an “alleged policy of exploitation of backward or weak peoples by a large power”. Waiting for the Barbarians is set in an unspecified place and time but serves as an as an allegory to imperial or colonial atrocities that were committed by those in power. In this novel, Coetzee considers the nature of oppression and its effect on both the oppressor and the oppressed.
It is this striking feature of the novel that locates it on the cusp between colonial and postcolonial narrative, in Suleri’s words: “the touristic experience of colonialism is deglamourised into mathematical computations of how literally banal the exotic may be” (45). But if detouring from eroticizing India offers an escape route from a colonial paradigm, Forster relies on other stereotypes to reiterate his theme as essentially Orientalized. The manner by which all his Indian characters are portrayed, starting with the protagonist himself, echoes an undercurrent of unauthenticity, simulating, in this regard, old colonial narratives, where the Other was hardly understood. Aziz is portrayed as a little dark man, whose attractions are never literalized. He is impulsive, prone to
Discovering identity from the Mohsin Hamid’s Reluctant Fundamentalist Abstract: The present research paper is an attempt to study and analyze Mohsin Hamid’s ‘The Reluctant Fundamentalist ‘in the light of Identity Crisis, cultural discrimination, terrorism political corruptions and inferiority complex in the socio-economic and cultural areas. The novel describes the positive and negative developments in the Pakistan and American relations. Hamid in The Reluctant Fundamentalist has attempted the issues of colonialism and the quest for identity on the part of people from the so called developing cultures in the present day context. Hamid has shown that America has assumed the status of neo-colonial power, and behaves like a colonialist country.
In an article written by novelist and travel writer, Paul Theroux “The Trouble with Autobiographies” he stated that autobiographies are invariably misleading. The concept of a self-conscious and the autobiographical genre are interconnected social constructions. Hence, what are the
Cultural Hybridity in Interpreter of Maladies Jhumpa Lahiri’s “Interpreter of Maladies” is a story that explores the theme of exile and cultural hybridity. Jhumpa aims, in this story, at showing the trauma of loss of identity in clash of cultures. As Bhabha defines in the Location of Culture, “Hybridity is the sign of productivity of colonial power, its shifting forcesand fixities: it is the name for strategic reversal of the process of domination through disavowal (that is, the production of discriminatory identities that secure the ‘pure’ and original identity of authority). Hibridity is the revolution of the assumption of colonial identity through the repetition of discriminatory identity effects.” The character that exist in this space has internalized the ethos of the culture she was raised in, yet they have to deal with the palimpsest of their culture of origin. This gives rise to interest questioned about cultural hybridity and the condition of a postcolonial subject in a neo-colonial world.
Alienation, disintegration and exile are terms that are frequently used in postcolonial literature, and it wouldn’t be wrong to denote that it is imperialism that has brought about a sense of disorder and alienation to countries that were ruled by the imperialists (Parag 135). Using Homi Bhabha’s concept of ‘unhomeliness’ and Hegel’s ‘alienation’ theory as framework, the aim of this paper will be to discuss how V.S. Naipaul strategically portrayed the feeling of being unhomed and alienated through the protagonist, in A House for Mr. Biswas (1961). Primarily, I would assert that this work is a personal reflection of V.S. Naipaul’s inner self, by understanding the nature of his writings, which are filled with works on displacement, alienation