The term “constructivism” was first introduced by Nicholas Onuf in his book World in Our Making. According to Viotti and Kauppi, Constructivism differs from neo-realist and neo-liberal who believes that identities and interest are given. Constructivist argues that states do not simply react to their environment but dynamically engage it. Hence, not the only environment influences the behavior of the actors, but also do the actors affect the environment surrounding them. To constructivist, ideas are important, particularly when it takes structural form where in which this structure can influence the behavior of both state and non-state actors.
Machiavelli tries to uncover patterns of social and political phenomena, to find out the reasons for changing one form of another state, to determine the best of them, consider the problem of the relation of power of the ruler and the people, etc. Analysis and resolution of these issues, based on the needs of the time, provided the value of the teaching thinker practical science of politics, governance. Introduction of the term, that is, the "state" in political science of modern times is attributed to Machiavelli. Scientists believe that the state was not created by God and the people, based on the needs of the common good. At first, people lived separately, but later joined together to better defend themselves.
Foucault was a French philosopher, social theorist and social critic. He defines relationship between power and knowledge and its use as a form of social control [Ritzer, George, 2005] . He define Subject as one who can take actions according to his will and Object as one whose actions are controlled by other subject. In his theory on Objectification of Subject, he defines three modes of objectification of subject. 1.
He was an Italian thinker and political activist, who is considered to be a revisionist Marxist. He reviewed the Marxist-Hegelian understanding of civil society. In his opinion, civil society is a domain of voluntary associations counterpoint to the state. He defined it as a realm of the private citizen and individual consent, and placed civil society between the coercive relations of the state and the economic sphere of production. He relocated civil society at the level of the superstructure, along with the state, and he argued that civil society was the site for contest and conflict for establishing hegemony over society.
The latter consists of the base structures needed for the said societies production and operation; structures such as transport, energy and healthcare are part of the infrastructure. Institutions such as the justice system, military and family, among others, make up the superstructure. Marx viewed the 'state' as being in a relationship with society as one of control and subservience, respectively, therefore creating conflict. In Marx's theory of the state, he postulates the terms of mode/means of production, where the labour force are oppressed by the elite and owners of the production. He conferred that there were different stratifications, which formed economic bases, creating an ideological superstructure which consisted of juridical and
Foucault seeks to analyze punishment in social context and to examine how changing power relations triggered punishment. As Foucault expresses in his own intent: “This book is intended as a correlative history of the modern soul and of a new power to judge, a genealogy of the present scientific-legal complex from which the power to punish derives its bases, justifications and rules, from which it extends its effects
To do this, he uses the concept of governmentality. These investigations have resulted in two books: Security, Territory, Population and The Birth of Biopolitics . Both texts deal with the problem of governmentality, where governing means to conduct behaviours, that is, to expose actions on possible actions, whether from inducing, diverting, inciting, etc. Governmentality will conform the rationality of biopolitics, something that can be defined as the art of the exercise of government or government technologies. This thesis of governmentality allows Foucault to depart from the Marxist and liberal tradition that sees in the State the realization of an ideal.
However, as Heywood simply puts, an ideology may be understood as a “coherent set of ideas which provides, the basis for organised political action, whether this is intended to preserve, modify or overthrow the existing system of power” (Heywood, 2012). In this essay I will attempt to explore fully what ideology is, its role in society and its importance. In completing this task I will look to a number of prominent ideologies and the influence they have had in building societies. I will begin my essay by discussing the Marxist view of what ideology is, and also the non-Marxist view of ideology, so as to understand the different perspectives relating to the ambiguous term. Following this I will look at how ideology often interlinks with both religion and politics.
Neo-Gramscianism in Sociology of International Relations: Robert Cox Neo-Gramscianism is a critical theory based on the study of international relations and global political economy. This theory explores different ideas, institutions and material capabilities, how do these ideas form the specific contours of the state appearance. The main idea of this theory is strongly influenced by the works of Antonio Gramsci. Neo-Gramscianism analyzes the way in which the specific social forces, the state and the dominant ideological formations define and maintain world order. On this basis, neo-Gramscian approach destroys long-term stagnation and contradictions that exist between the so-called realist school of thought and liberal theory.
Marxism, as a political ideology, originated from Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his friend Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). Marxism seeks to understand the problems of mankind and society through historical analysis and treats history as a process of conflict between antagonistic forces and classes. The conflict is a product of the contradictions inherent in the mode of production in which the class that “has” dominates the class that does “not