Thomas Paine opposes the ideology of government, stating that, “Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil,” (Paine 3). Essentially, the purpose of government is to protect people from preforming vices, and defend their natural right to Locke’s ideology of life, liberty and property. Without government, coercion would occur, and destroy one’s ability to express their natural rights. For America, Paine believes that the establishment of a strong fundamental government could allow for the cohesion of citizens to form a society respected by other nations
Whereas Hobbes states that based on his idea of human nature, which is humans are born evil, that one ruler should be given absolute power. While Hobbes makes various points he does conclude that people should surrender their freedom to this power because the ruler keeps them safe. This including the right to complain about the ruler’s policies. Locke’s ideal government is one that doesn’t give absolute power to one person but rather power to a group of power. This making it less likely for a ruler to abuse their power or corrupt the government.
The state and federal governments are not competing for power, but designed to effectively work together in protecting the common good. The state governments are responsible for internal affairs, and the federal for external affairs. They have the mutual authority to check the power of the other, through the power of the people. This will especially protect the state governments from usurpations of power by the federal government. The division of the federal government into three distinct branches, each with the authority to effectively check the power of the others will also ensure the best protection of individual liberty.
What makes authority legitimate or illegitimate? When putting your life and trust into someone else or a government and submitting to their authority, you better make sure they are legitimate. I believe that authority is legitimate when it is knowledgeable, has the ability to coerce people in unity, and to be morally just when doing so. The Secret Sharer, Antigone, and Gattica all have examples of a legitimate or illegitimate authority. The first aspect of a legitimate authority figure is that they are knowledgeable.
Individuals form a Commonwealth to escape the state of nature so that “one person, of whose acts a great multitude, by mutual covenants with another, have made themselves every one the author, to the end he may use the strength and means of them all, as he shall think expedient, for their peace and common defense” (112). This leads to the question: to what extent does Hobbes’ theory of self-interest contradict an individual’s supposed obedience to his sovereign? According to Hobbes, the sovereign assures security to an individual through his absolute power, but obedience to the sovereign does not always correlate with an individual’s self-preservation. Due to the state of nature being violent, it is optimal for individuals to relinquish their rights to an absolute sovereign. If one agrees with Hobbes’ theory about life in a state of nature being “nasty, brutish, and short” (82), then
1984, a heinous vision of a past future, shows a terrifying concept of complete control of the human race. It teaches that power is only ever used for power’s sake, and that nothing else matters, except for power. However, to get to that point, the human race must be convinced wholeheartedly and completely that the Party is correct. There must not be a shadow of doubt in their collective mind, and what better way to do that then with logical fallacies? Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning, often used in attempts to strengthen one’s argument, but often have the opposite effect.
Create a mentality of “we” and not “me.” 3. Set a culture of “Reality” – Leaders must set a culture that deals with realities, not matter how difficult. Leaders should avoid creating a “fantasy” that everything is good because it will only magnify the consequences
He is also justifying his claim that “revolutionary government” must act in a way that “constitutional government” can’t because the “revolutionary government” acts for the good of all citizens and state rather than just the
He suggests that a great society is an enlightened one – one in which people have achieved “emergence from … self-incurred immaturity” (Kant,  2013, p. 25). He argues that one should avoid being controlled by institutions and rulers and that a great society requires perhaps not a great leader, but a sense of civil and intellectual freedom among the people (Kant,  2013). This freedom, however, is very difficult to achieve – hence why Kant states that we live in not an enlightened age, but one of enlightenment – as no matter how free a society is, and how many people think for themselves, “guardians” will always emerge (Kant,  2013). These guardians will blind the public – and possibly even themselves – from the truth (Kant,  2013), and will always find a way to somehow “serve as a leash to control the great unthinking mass” (Kant,  2013, p. 25) unless true enlightenment is achieved through a revolution (Kant,  2013). Kant suggests that if this is achieved, and all people think independently, a society will govern itself, create its own laws – or, at least, proposals for them, which would be sent to the crown – and naturally fall into a state of order (Kant,  2013).
In order to build the best puppet, the Prince must use the Zeitgeist to create a deity, something that is loved by its followers and feared by the disbelievers. In the past, the deity created from the Zeitgeist would be God, but in this modern world, the puppet is one made from the majority opinions of morality. The Prince will give their laws and rules under the disguise of morality. It will appear as if the laws arouse from the majority’s opinions themselves. The laws do not have to actually comply with majority opinion, but they only have to appear as it came from the majority’s opinion.