Thus the law “you will not stand on the blood of your neighbor” is valid because it protects the natural right that an individual has to life. On the other hand Aquinas believes that the validity of a law is rooted in the divine principles that underlie the law. Natural law consist of an ethical aspect, which are the moral principles only known to God as well as a legal component which is the expression of these moral principles within the human legal system . According to Aristotle these moral principles, which exist on the eternal level of law, are the basis of the laws that are created on the human level. In the adoption case Justice Dornor asked whether a person enjoys the fruit of a forbidden act in order to illustrate the moral principles underlying our laws .
They argue that the rights of animals should be similar to human rights. This issue was supported by two examples, which can both be argued against. One of the examples was the comparison of animals to chattel slavery. The definition of a slave is a person who is the legal property of another and is forced to obey them. These animals may be the property of humans but the animals are not forced to obey the humans or work for them, which shows that it is an invalid comparison.
What is ethics? Ethics is a framework for human actions that forbids action against morality and humanity. So it is considered as a line that should not be stepped beyond to prevent any breach that could violate anything. Ethics for biotechnology and other biological field called “bioethics”. Even though those two terms sounds similar they are for different causes.
TOWARDS ANIMALS RIGHTS It is said that the beasts are not persons either natural or legal. Hence they possess no legal rights. But according to Salmond there are two cases in which beasts may be thought of possessing certain legal rights. In the first place, cruelty to animals is a criminal offence, and in the second place, a trust for the benefit of particular classes of animals, as opposed to one for individual animals, is valid and enforceable as a public and charitable trust; for example, a provision for the establishment and maintenance of a home for stray dog or broken-down horses. We have seen that the human beings owe a duty towards the animals, which ultimately is considered as a duty towards the society also.
There is a psychological difference in today’s world of what we enjoy out of nature (Becker, 1971). So Becker’s question of, “what is the relation of man to nature?” (p. 114), is essential because the relationship we have with nature not only affects our survival but our psychological state as well
3.0 ETHICAL AND MORAL VALUES OF ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Environmental ethics enable us to comprehend and value the nature and invention of God but they may differ in terms of different civilisations and perspectives. There are two ways environment ethnics can be addressed which are human-centred and ecocentric. Human-centred approach is about what environment can supply to humans and the maintenance of the resources for present and future use. On the other hand, ecocentric approach is appreciated as core value which is what humans may give to the environment. Both of the approaches achieve a consensus that humans are a portion of biosphere, what human had did will affect themselves, environment and also the sustainability of the earth (Amin,
Jeremy Bentham, a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer who is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism, stated his devotion towards animal rights through the following words, “The question is not, ‘can they reason?’ nor, ‘can they talk?’ but rather, ‘can they suffer?’” In this quote, he clearly ends up with his provoking statement that even though animals cannot express themselves, still they have their own feelings and sufferings, which cannot be translated into human language. One of the upcoming revolutions in the world is the quest for protecting animal rights, which are led by the animal rights activists. Animals are the constituents of this complex universe. The animal rights supporters; portray the animals as inferior
Both efforts are stemmed on the sense of duty toward nature, predominantly rooted on the urgency to correct past mistakes. The maintenance measures to restore or preserve nature are devised to reduce, minimize or even exclude humans’ interference in natural ecosystems. The next question arises as to what extent human interference in the form of nature maintenance can be justified as being beneficial to the well-being of the natural
Nevertheless, despite their arguments being supported by validated and reliable evidence, both authors are biased towards their viewpoints. Initially, the authors argue that the domestication of animals must be prohibited as it violates the basic rights of animals and raises moral questions. One right that animals must obtain is the right not to be property. When animals are a property they are mistreated and not protected. Despite the laws that governments such as the US and UK established towards animals, they only seem to be effective when a conflict arises between the owner and the animal.
2.3.1 Differences between Conservation and Preservation Conservation and preservation are both methods that are very much necessary to safeguard the future of certain vital phenomena of the world such as the environment, natural energies and also wildlife preservation. However, sometimes these two words have been seen to be used interchangeably which should not be the case since there is a difference between conservation and preservation. The words conservation and preservation may appear to mean the same thing but are actually different in some ways. These are terms commonly used by people who are trying to protect the environment, and are often confused. Although both groups have similar frameworks, tools and methods, conservation and preservation