‘Globalization is the emergence of a complex web of interconnectedness’ (Heywood, 2011), a central feature of Globalization is determining that there is a decline in the importance of geographical limits and territorial borders. The concept of a borderless economy, widespread integration of different cultures, religions, ethnicity and nationality around the world is contributing to the idea of a Global Society, which, in turn, brings us to the question of globalization being inevitable or irreversible. Globalization can be studied through three different aspects: Political, economical and cultural. It is important to realize that globalization is not a new phenomenon; it is a concept that has been around for many centuries. The Silk Route at one time joined the East and West which allowed trade relationships to prosper.
Political globalization on a narrower end, defines the increasing inclination towards multilateralism and emergence of non-governmental state actors, which have direct influence over the state. (V.M., Moghadam). A state is as the ruling of a sovereign territory. In my opinion, I believe that the state is indeed entering a period of decline, due to non-state actors such as violent non-state actors and multinational corporations. Globalization has affected social, economic, technological, and political factors immensely, leading to a proliferation in non-state actors.
This argument was best described by stating the author creating a disease called “Microchip Immune Deficiency Syndrome”. This syndrome tends to affect a country or a company that fails to adapt to the changes in the system. Subsequently, making this country or company left behind as it fails to connect to the world. Since, globalization usually has its pros and cons, it can be the door to an interconnected world with fast connections that could make economics more efficient, on the contrary, it is not open to all, especially to countries that are far behind and cling to their olive tree very tight as these countries engage to the “backlash” brought by the globalization. In the final part of the book, the author argues that US has a vital role in this new era of globalization.
Since mid-19th century, the term globalization has been increasingly used. Globalization has become the most important topic in the beginning of 20th century. An inclusive definition of globalization is “a process that encompasses the causes, course, and consequences of transnational and trans-cultural integration of human and non-human activities” (Al-Rodhan, 2006). The progress of globalization is inevitable. According to Sheuy (2001), globalization can be divided into three aspects and it is “the integration of the political, economic and cultural activities of geographically and/or nationally separated people.” The impact is extensive.
Even Spivak, a postcolonial theorist, in her critique of imperialism opines that colonialism initiated the complex procedure of global inequality and exploitation in the Third World. She argues that globalization is a continuation of this procedure. She lays stress on the role of culture in the creation of the inferior image of the third world. She calls this process of domination and cultural production as the worlding of the West as a world in which western ideas, interests and languages are highlighted as the world’s interests and are automatically propagated to the rest of the world. Spivak calls this operation of cultural production and domination as ‘epistemic violence’ of imperialism.
‘’Globalization is a widely and somewhat loosely used term intended to describe the recent and rapid process of intercontinental economic, social, and political integration. This worldwide integration allows people to communicate, travel and invest internationally, and helps companies market their produces widely, acquire capital human and material resources more efficiently share advanced technology, and enjoy economics of scale. While many benefit from globalization, others are hurt economically, some cultures may be harmed, and local environments may suffer.
The Concept of Globalization The concept of globalization is widely used in many fields, which includes economic globalization and cultural globalization. And the concept of “cultural globalization” is also often found in various media. In the past, many scholars focused their discussions on globalization at the economic level, defining globalization as a one-sided economic expansion accompanied by the colonial struggle. But now, it becomes a constantly updated concept,which refers to the intensification of consciousness and compression of the world. (Roland, 1993) In addition, the process and the actions of globalization are also changing now.
Before analyzing and discussing the “fiercest enemies” of globalization, we must first mention that the current economic state presents many obstacles for the phase of globalization. But then why is the greater part of the world globalized? Because nowadays most of these barriers can be easily overcome as globalization develops and dictates the tempo of economic growth. In this process of globalizing, the societies discover new ways of lowering or completely removing the hurdles which block the successful evolution of globalization. For instance, factors like language, culture, nationalism, technological differences, different currencies, etc.
Among the complaints are often also that global trade is increasingly based on transnational enterprises in an effort to increase profits do not take into account the needs of the local population and individual host countries. The warnings also concern the volume and volatility of capital flows, which increase the risks of banking and currency crises, particularly in countries that have weak financial institutions. Among all of the above is also much criticism of the competition among developing countries that the goal to attract as much foreign investment, are often neglected and lower environmental standards. Finally, it should be noted that cultural diversity lost importance in favor of homogenization and universal culture, which tends to stem from American culture. As an example of bad impact of globalization is frequently mentioned example of South American countries, where there is excessive imports of liberalization would lead to significant inequalities and the poverty threshold plunged into a bunch of people living on less than 1 USD per
The social processes in which globalisation evolves from include the “multiplication of social and economic networks that transcend traditional borders; the stretching of social and economic relations, activities and inter-dependencies over increasing distances; the intensification and acceleration of exchanges that are made across expanding distances in ever-less time and with increasing frequency; and the development of a global consciousness, in which people have a greater awareness of the world as a whole, and their place in it” (Stegar, 2003, p.13) (Woods, 2011a).However, geographers don’t like to look at globalisation as the transportation of goods, people and capital around the world. They simply like to term globalisation as the interdependence and interconnection of localities worldwide. There are many variations of globalisation that are having a noticeable effect on the reshaping of rural economies and societies such as the economic globalisation which includes agricultural change, the globalisation of mobility, cultural globalisation and the globalisation of industrial