Part A- Assessment Formative assessment can be both formal and informal assessment to determine and evaluate students understanding on certain topics. This assessment will be not be conducted just to give grades but to help students in learning as it is a learning process as well. Students will be able to think about their own learning method as they reflect on their formative assessment. This is because, an effective formative assessment will be set according to certain areas of topics in a subjects. This is merely to improvise and teaching and learning process.
The teacher provides the student with the opportunities to learn independently from one another and this will help them improve their soft skill or self improvement skills. Student centric learning approach includes techniques such as role plays in situations which needs creative thinking and using self paced or cooperative learning(team based). Student-centered learning environments provide interactive, complimentary activities that enable individuals to address their unique learning interests and
To design effective teaching environments, it believes one needs a good understanding of what children already know when they come into the classroom. The curriculum should be designed in a way that builds on the pupil's background knowledge and is allowed to develop with them. Begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems. The learning theories of John Dewey, Maria Montessori, and David A. Kolb serve as the foundation of the application of constructivist learning theory in the classroom. Constructivism has many varieties such as active learning, discovery learning, and knowledge building, but all versions promote a student's free exploration within a given framework or structure.
INTRODUCTION Concept mapping is a method of learning .Learning means is an intellectual process of each learner to make his or her understanding of ideas, concept, connections and procedure .This type of learning helps the student to organize their thinking and to know the other common concepts around them. Definition A concept or mind mapping is a brief but comprehensive symbolic representation of the collection of ideas, concepts and the linking relationships of knowledge about a topic or process of an individual. The father of the concept mapping is Joseph. D. Novak. He believed in constructivism and cognitive theory.
Enables students to understand and monitor their own learning by enabling them to see how closely their own work matches a given goal. One of the benefit of formative assessment is that it can help students learn more about the goals for a given lesson, unit, or course. But another advantage is that it helps students to evaluate their own learning more effectively. High-quality formative assessment provides enough detail to give students a clear idea of what, why, and how they are to proceed as they continue to work on an assignment. However, such elaboration needs to be offered in manageable chunks so that students are not
This development takes place within the ZPD. When a student is in the ZPD for a given task, the provision of appropriate assistance will give the learner a helping hand in completing the particular task independently, states (McLeod, 2013) . Teachers and more competent learners assume the role of the More Knowledgeable Others (MKO) in the language learning classrooms. When we say that a teacher gives learners guidance towards the desired results, we are referring to “scaffolding”, which is guided assistance. Scaffolding will be explained in full later in the
Johnson (1986), there is persuasive evidence that cooperative teams achieve it higher level of thought and retain information longer than students who work quietly as individuals. The learning gives students an opportunity to engage in discussion, take responsibility for their own learning and thus, become critical thinkers. In this study, the student can learn more when they work together, sharing different thoughts, ideas and experiences to attain their specific goals. Collaborative activity also helps the students to create a good communication and relationship to each other. Meta-Cognitive Learning Skill Meta-cognition refers to learner’s automatic awareness about the topic that is discussed.
In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
Discovery learning and inquiry-based learning support the idea that students learn when they make use of personal experiences to discover facts, relationships, and concepts. Discovery learning is an inquiry-based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned. Students interact with the world by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. (https://www.learning-theories.com/discovery-learning-bruner.html) Gestalt Theory of Learning. Gestalt psychologists offered a phenomenological description of problem-solving
that they need more time in completing classwork or assignments . Apart from various learning challenges , students with learning difficulties may have totally different abilities and ways of learning . Some students are more comfortable in visual learning while some others are more confident in learning through the audio visual mode . some learners learn through sense of touch and feel . Remedial tutors , therefore, should design multipronged teaching plan and bring into practice various teaching methods to help students maximize their potential and remove the hiccups in learning.