Introduction This assignment is in two parts. The first part of this assignment would attempt to use the theories of human development to explain the child behaviours observed during child observation at the preschool while the second part of this assignment would propose an intervention on a scenario at my practice placement. I would demonstrate my critical understanding of the theories and evaluate their relevance for evidence-informed and value-based practice. I would conclude by articulating my critical appreciation of the use of theory to inform professional social work practice based on my experience from the child observation and my placement experience. The notes taken from the child observations and a chosen case from my placement,
According to Thomas (2005), Piaget 's theory was based upon both the natural maturation of the child and stages, which means the concept of the child’s readiness is paramount; which is when certain topics should be taught. According to Piaget there are certain concepts that should not be taught to a child until he or she has reached the appropriate stage of cognitive development. Secondly, assimilation and accommodation require the child to be actively engaged, because Piaget believed that problem-solving skills can only be discovered by the learner, not taught (pp. 216-9). Furthermore, Piaget conceived the classroom as being student-centered with the teacher as the facilitator, one who: emphasizes the learning process, not the results; guides the lesson; uses collaborative and individual activities, devises meaningful learning problems, and creates tasks suitable for the child’s level of development (Schcolnik, Kol, & Abarbanel, 2016, p.
According to Vygotsky, for the curriculum to be developmentally appropriate, the teacher must plan activities that encompass not only what children are capable of doing on their own but what they can learn with the help of others (Karpov & Haywood, 1998). Vygotsky’s theory does not mean that anything can be taught to any child. Only instruction and activities that fall within the zone promote development. For example, if a child cannot identify the sounds in a word even after many prompts, the child may not benefit immediately from instruction in this skill. Teachers can use information of both levels of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development in organizing classroom activities such as first instruction can be planned to provide practice in
It proposes discrete stages of development, marked by qualitative differences, rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviors, concepts, ideas, etc. The goal of the theory is to explain the mechanisms and processes by which the infant, and then the child, develops into an individual who can reason and think using hypotheses. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. Children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment. Both Piaget and Vygotsky provided highly influential theories which had impact on the way children are taught.
Adolescents use their individual experiences and knowledge to try to make sense of the world around them (Piaget, 1960). According to Kellough and Kellough (2008) are adolescents also able to start nuance of metaphors to understand and to derive meaning of traditional wisdom. Kellough and Kellough (2008) also believes that adolescents also meta-cognition, begin to experience the knowledge and control of mental activities during learning processes. The development of formal-operational thinking, according to Piaget’s development is the framework to adolescence. It is a more abstract conceptualization like solving mathematical problems, with the ability to form hypothesis and to argue logically (Shefer , 2011).
Ethics according to my understanding is that division of philosophy which concerns with the moral principles that guide us in terms of our behaviour and way of doing things. Ethics simply helps a person in distinguishing between the right and wrong, good and bad, just and unjust, acceptable and unacceptable. It incorporates the ethical standards or the code of ethics guiding a person into the right path by instilling discipline and other virtues in our life’s daily activities. As professional teachers we endowed with dignity and reputation with high code of conduct while practicing the noble teaching profession which also requires us to follow set of ethical and moral principles, standards and values. Ethics in education concerns with the study of ethical standards or basic principles related rooted in the education system.
circumstances. What I see the most is the spirit Dietrichson explores from Kant. Known critics usually take Kant’s illustration as the particular duty because Kant in his major works on ethics, since Groundwork, gives specific examples of maxims and shows how they are to be tested in terms of the primary and secondary universalizability criteria of the CI. Kant illustrates different types of empirical circumstances in the light of occasional vagueness and ambiguity of CI on this point. Dietrichson maintains that the emptiness charge upon Kant would be of biographical interest only.
The learning styles are mostly used in the educational field, with the aid of Peter Honey and Alan Mumford learning style questionnaire. The questionnaire is different from Kolb’s inventory due to it asking an individual to consider work related behaviours instead of deciding how to learn (Helyer, 2010,
2.8.1 Cognitive Development Maturation and experience are two main features of cognitive development that impact on the capacity of an individual to model problems using their spatial skills. “According to (Piaget and Inhelder, 1971) a person’s cognitive development determines the potential of what he/she could achieve.” (Alias, Black and Gray 2002, p.2) Cognitive development can be categorised into four distinct stages; the sensori-motor stage, the pre-operational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. Pupils in post-primary education are positioned at stages three and four. The concrete operational stage is associated with how an individual uses his/ her experience to make limited judgements/decisions from
Because students are working on different projects, or participating in different external activities, they can’t all be expected to learn the exact same things, and each student may take away something different from the experience. Beyond the variability of activities, there is also the variability amongst the different students. In experiential learning, these two types of variables are often uncontrollable, and thus have to be accounted for when developing assessment methods. Ewert and Sibthorp have broken these “confounding variables” down into three areas based on what part of the experiential learning cycle they affect. The confounding variables are either precursors, concomitant, or post
Question One (4 marks) Identify which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development Mollie and her friends are in. Describe some key characteristics of children in this stage of cognitive development. Describe two examples from the chapter that illustrate characteristics of this stage of cognitive development. “Developmental psychology studies the way human develop and change over time.” (Burton, Westen, & Kowalski, 2014, p. 464). Piaget has proposed 4 stages in his theory of cognitive development; the first is sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage and finally, formal operational stage.
This paper compares two of the five learning theories; cognitivism and behaviorism, in three ways. Firstly, the role of the facilitator is evaluated. Secondly, the paper analyses the process through which student learn and make meaning in both theories. Finally, the paper reviews the benefits and challenges of the approaches as they relate to adult development. The cognitive theory focuses on how people learn from the processing of information.
Lev Vygotsky had an alternative view on cognitive development. Vygotsky states that “learning is passed down from generation to generation; that it is a result of guided social interactions in which children worked with their peers and a mentor to solve problems and that cognitive development could only be understood if you took cultural and social context into account.”( Singer, 2010). He suggests that you were unable to think until you knew and understood a language. Vygotsky came up with the Zone of Proximal Development, which he described as the transformation between the progressive level of a child on his own and the progressive level a child could reach with the right amount of guidance. Vygotsky called this guidance scaffolding and