Natural law theory states that people should focus on the good and avoid any evil. The last theory is Aristotle’s virtue ethics which states that we should move from the concern towards good action and to focus on the concern with good character. This paper argues that Aristotle’s virtue ethics is better than the other ethical theories. The divine command theory says that what is morally right and what is morally wrong is determined by God and God alone. People who follow the divine command theory believe that God is the creator of all things, therefore, he must also be the creator of morally right and wrong acts.
He refers to his moral argument—wherein without the existence of God, objective moral values would also cease to exist, but objective moral values do exist and thus God also must exist—to make the claim that God is all-good (p. 125). He also refers to the cosmological argument to show that God is an all-powerful being who created the universe out of nothing. Furthermore, he claims that suffering in the world is moral in the sense that suffering inflicted on innocents is genuinely evil. Without a God, there would be no objective morals, thus, evil proves God’s existence, as things would not be considered good or evil without a God (Craig, p. 126). In conclusion, evil proves God’s existence and thus the question as to why God permits evil does not work to disprove His existence.
Another one of Anselm’s ideas was the divine nature of God. Since God is the greatest thing that one can imagine, He therefore exists and is omnipotent. This also concludes that God “must be just, self-existent, invulnerable to suffering, merciful, timelessly eternal, non-physical, non-composite, and so forth. For if he lacked any of these qualities, he would be less than the greatest conceivable being, which is impossible” (Saint Anselm). There isn’t much of standard for how one would be considered the highest or greatest since everyone has different ideals and sees the world differently.
Ontological arguments in favour of Existence of God: The very first sentence of Ontological arguments describing that ‘God is a being by which no greater being can be imagined it is a conceptual truth’. It is extremely wrong because it can be easily criticised. Let me take a example, suppose “x” is something that describes a physical quantity. Then surely “2x” greater than “x” and “3x” greater than “2x” and so on. That means 2 God is greater than 1 God and 3 God is greater than 2 God and so on.
This being is what we call “God”” (Leib slide 2). I believe that Ockham’s Razor cannot be pitted against this argument because the Razor already explains that the belief of one supreme being is a lot simpler than the belief of many. Anslem’s argument is trying to prove the existence of “one” supreme being, which already complies with Ockham’s Razor. Aquinas’s Cosmological Argument of God’s existence on the other hand is way too complex. He states that efficient causes are the reason for God’s existence.
Civil Disobedience Henry David Thoreau’s famous essay, Civil Disobedience, is an interesting window into the mind of a staunch logician who supports morals above all else. As a transcendentalist, Thoreau supports the mindset of human perfection; that is, he believes that all humans can achieve a complete lack of sin. Unfortunately, Christians know this to be false; the only person who has ever achieved perfection was both God and man; however, this mindset is constantly seen in Thoreau’s essay. The entire essay serves as an indictment on the American government for its ‘complication’ and its efforts to create an empire during the Spanish-American War. While the entire essay is not a beneficial political ideology, a clear majority of
The cosmological argument is attempting to show existence through the universe itself. The cause of the universe must be necessary and therefore uncaused is based on the contingency of the universe and that each thing that does exist may also not have existed. There is no explanation or natural reason given in terms of the laws of nature as to why objects of the universe exist or why the universe exists. Is there an ultimate explanation for the existence of anything or being or is it incomplete unless it culminates to its highest point, can be a sufficient or insufficient reason for life. The question that there is a need for a cause of God’s existence will always be scrutinized and debated as answers are sought out to prove existence and
It looks like “God’s plan” is not “persuasive” enough to be certain that people believe in His word and power, thus he needs to apply tests on them to check their faith! On this account, David Hume explained that “In order to govern the material world, the almighty creator has established general and immutable laws, by which all bodies, from the greatest planet to the smallest particle of matter, are maintained in their proper sphere and function.” This explains that God needed rules and laws in order to express Himself as a ruler, as a higher entity than mankind. Therefore, this line of argumentation could explain why Adam & Eve ate from the forbidden tree. Not necessarily because they wanted to, but because God wanted to check on them. If God was able to rely on His ability to create faithful and virtuous individuals, there would have been no need for the tree to exist in the middle of the garden, more than that, there should not have been a need for the snake to exist in the Garden of Eden.
It was, as if, an inevitable evolution of humanism on the way of knowing ‘Atman’ or ‘Brahman’ concluding that, ‘serving human is serving the God’. The ‘Upanishads’ are revelation of the subtlest essence of our being, which lies far deeper than the level of the common animal man. The pure self is one in all and is identical with the highest reality of the universe. The Upanishads thus, set the target for the human to be blessed, to be enlightened and to be good. The writers of the Upanishads were not bound by the rules of castes, but extended the law of spiritual universalism to the utmost bounds of human existence through sacrifice, abandonment of one’s ego and prayer, the exploration of reality by pure consciousness.
We can say that god exists by thinking about god. As we know that for sided god triangle triangle is impossible, in the same manner non-existence of god is also impossible. If we think god is perfect and superior than everything we know then anything greater than god can’t be imagined. If we think god as not