Rousseau claims that “Man is essentially good in the state of nature” and complete freedom can only be achieved when man is not connected with the society. State of nature refers to the conditions of men and women before the concept of society and civilization began to resurface. The moment somebody thinks that something is their property, their minds became corrupted.
He speaks of it as above the gods, something which even they cannot control. This is visible when Antigone argues with Creon saying, “Do as you like, dishonor the laws / the gods hold in honor” (lines 91-92). The gods hold things in honor that are above them, thus natural law must be a binding force which holds the deities responsible. Throughout the play Antigone, Sophocles never mentions a particular god as the cause of Creon’s tragic situation. This indicates that the tragedies are a natural result of Creon’s blatant disobedience of the laws of nature.
In the matter of good and evil, can pessimistic judgments about life, such as the one expressed in the quotation by Schopenhauer, be an objective philosophical analysis of human existence? “For evil is precisely that which is positive, that which makes itself palpable; and good, on the other hand, i.e. all happiness and all gratification, is that which is negative”, (Schopenhauer, A, 1850, p:41). First and foremost, the philosopher’s thought on the values behind ‘good’ and ‘evil’ reflects what he believes is the most honest depiction life. Schopenhauer considers happiness to be 'lack of suffering ' and goodness to be 'lack of evil
Different philosophers have different views on state of nature. State of nature is a pre-social condition in which man exists/existed in the absence of society. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believes the State of Nature is a wonderful, rich environment for early humans living solitary peaceful lives. He once said, “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” On the other hand, Thomas Hobbes, English philosophers, believes, “Life in the state of nature is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Though William Golding introduce an idea of good in human nature at the few front chapters, ultimately, he illustrates a pessimistic view of human nature that human is inherently evil through violence existed in Lord of the Flies. Furthermore, from
Ideologies that were created by John Locke and Thomas Hobbes clashed with one another. John Locke, an influential English enlightenment philosopher, believed that human beings are not evil by nature. Locke believed that human beings become evil choice after being socialized into their community, which is the person 's nurture. If a human is socialized with goodness, then, humans would not be evil, but if a human has been nurtured in evil and selfishness, the person will have malice within them. Thomas Hobbes, who was also a philosopher at the time, believed in the very opposite of what John Locke preached.
Hobbes famously described non-political society, or as it has also been come to known, the State of Nature as “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” (Hobbes, 1651: 1.13). To understand this it is important to grasp the nature of man in the State of Nature. A concept central to the comprehension of this is the equality of all men; despite having different strengths, men are equal, meaning no man has superiority over another. Man’s dominant passion is described as being self-preservation, all man’s wants, and desires lead back to their want to preserve their lives. Hobbes saw this not only as a passion but a right, all men are born with the natural right to do what they need in order to preserve their own life which Hobbes calls ‘the right of nature’.
Jean Racine uses his play, Phaedra, as an exploration of pure virtue and finds that all people are morally grey, meaning that no one is altogether virtuous or sinful. Through the absence of purely right and purely wrong characters, Racine is able to create a play about virtue rather than a play concerned with people, and whether or not they, on individual levels, are virtuous. This is not to say that he is arguing either way about the morality of the specific deeds committed in the play, but the opposite. Phaedra is concerned with the idea of virtue itself rather than with the characters and the specific virtuous or sinful deeds they perform. Racine makes a few key changes to the story of Phaedra found in classical tragedy.
Theoretically, the veil of ignorance would be an effective way to eliminate all personal bias. Still, because humans are human, it is fundamentally impossible to eliminate all parochial interests, as Sen calls them. Sen references Adam Smith’s theory of an impartial spectator. Smith, an influential philosopher and economist, suggest that when decisions regarding social justice need to be made, they should be made by an objective outsider who would be unaffected by the decision. This outsider, the impartial spectator, would
The English Civil War was the backdrop for all his writings. “Hobbes also infers from his mechanistic theory of human nature that humans are necessarily and exclusively self-interested,” (Friend, C). Hobbes State of Nature is where the Hobbesian man is only concerned with his desires to better his own situation and acquiring power, but is also reasonable. Hobbes beliefs were arguably
Hobbes holds that “it is impossible to subjugate a man without first having placed him in the position of being unable to do without another.” Thus, the lack of organizational interdependence in primitive society prevents inequality. Similarly, the lawlessness of early society makes conflict impossible: war “can exist neither in the state of nature, where there is no stable property.” Thus, both philosophers consider equality the natural human orientation, but establish equality on radically different terms: Hobbes’s is chaotic and Rousseau’s harmonious. These assumptions inform their considerations of inequality (or lack thereof) within a legitimate