Khrushchev considered this justifiable because of the American missiles positioned in Turkey. The support for Cuba provided the Soviets with several political and diplomatic advantages, and became an immediate threat in the eyes of the American government. On October 14, a U2 spy plane flying over Cuba took pictures of potential nuclear missiles that were examined by many government officials. Eventually, the missiles were deemed not nuclear, but still capable of reaching the United States. Two days later, President Kennedy was briefed on the dire situation and immediately assembled the National Security Council to determine how to address the issue.
The first force of action Kennedy decided to take on Cuba was the economic blockade. This was put in place because Cuba had just signed a trade agreement with the USSR, and Kennedy knew that the USSR having access to planting their missiles only 90 miles away from US territory could be very dangerous. “Since the 1960s, the United States has imposed an embargo against Cuba...the blockade, consists of economic sanctions against Cuba and restrictions on Cuban travel and commerce for all people and companies under US jurisdiction.” This quote is from this website. This was a very big decision that Kennedy made because Cuba and the U.S traded a lot of goods between the each other, and he knew that he would be cutting off that supply completely. A lot of people did not believe he was making the right decision, but Kennedy knew that if his judgement and thinking was corrupted by other people 's perspective than he wouldn’t be able to truly figure out what was the right
In consequence to this threatening attack of the U.S. Castro approached Khrushchev for economic and military support to stand up against Kennedy. Khrushchev and Castro thought that the Soviet missiles landing in Cuba would be the perfect recipe to get to an advantage in the war against Capitalism, and secure Socialist Cuba at the same time. In this manner, Castro and the Cubans were being defensive in their action of seeking help from the Soviet Union and merely placing nuclear missiles in Cuba; it cannot be termed to be aggression against the United States of America if it was a measure undertaken to secure a nation. It is safe to start by turning the tables and looking back to the time when the US was in the shoes of USSR. Was there anything wrong about the British becoming allies, and seeking for the help from the
The Bay of Pigs was an invasion that the CIA had financed which involved training a group of Cuban refugees to land in Cuba. The primary goal of the invasion was to get rid of the communist government led by Fidel Castro. The Outcome of the invasion was unexpected, and the invasion failed miserably. The plan failed due to last minute cancellations of airstrikes, and the lack of knowledge that Castro had ordered 20,000 troops in advance to go to the attack site; this resulted in having the Cuban Air Force dominating the sky, which did not allow the U.S army to fight back. As the invasion went on, the chance of the U.S winning decreased within every hour.
The Cuban Missile Address is delivered October 22nd, 1962 in the Presidential office through a major radio and television address (Podell, Anzovin, and States United 705). Historically, it is worth mentioning that United States had attempted to overthrow Fidel Castro, who was at the time Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba, in at least two occasions known as the Bay of Pigs Operation and Operation Mongoose, because of his communist regime and close relationship with the Soviet Union (Pious). Then, after the Bay of Pigs incident, Fidel Castro urged Nikita Khrushchev, the Secretary General of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to send support and weapons to Cuba, because of the fear of another attack to his person/regime, Nikita did by sending missiles capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction, hence, this major crisis that lasted 14 days ending October 28, 1962 (Deinema and Leydesdorff). In addition, the target audience for this speech is the American people as President starts his speech with the phrase, “Good evening, my fellow citizens” (Kennedy); however, the secondary audience would be the Cuban people, whom he describes as captive people, the Soviet Union leaders, whom he directly addresses and even quotes, and Fidel Castro of course (Kennedy). As noted above, the cultural, socio-political context is important to understand the seriousness of this crisis and
In 1952 the US got involved after Nicaragua solicited U.S. assistance to overthrow the Guatemalan leader, Jacobo Arbenz Guzman. President Truman authorized the shipment of weapons and money to anti-Arbenz groups. But, within five weeks the operation to topple Arbenz quickly fizzled when representatives loyal to the president uncovered the plot and took steps to solidify their power. Later Eisenhower sought to defend American interests abroad with an increase in funds for nuclear weapons and covert operations. After that, convinced that Arbenz threatened U.S. national security because of his alleged Communist sympathies, Eisenhower approved the first-ever clandestine military action in Latin America.
The Bay of Pigs Operation The Bay of Pigs Operation is the U.S. final measure in preventing the spread of communism into the western hemisphere. For years the CIA and other intelligence agencies have taken interest in Cuba, following the overthrow of U.S. backed Cuban Leader Fulgencio Batista by rebel leader Fidel Castro. The initial proposal of the operation is to outgoing President Eisenhower towards the end of his administration. President Eisenhower approves of the initial plan to overthrow the newly formed Castro regime. President Kennedy approves the final plan early in his administration.
The Kennedy administration would give it another try in 1961 and 1962 with Operation Mongoose which would even further put strain on the United States and Cuban relationship. During the one year period Operation Mongoose and the Cuban Missile Crisis would take center stage. It was brought to the attention of the administration by way of a U-2 spy plane that the Soviet Union was supplying materials and constructing nuclear missile sites on the island of Cuba. (Figure 2, Atomic Archive) The effective range of these missiles could reach as far as New York, Chicago, and possibly San Francisco. The imaging of the sites went unnoticed by Cuba and the Soviet Union and President Kennedy would then send a naval blockade around the island of Cuba.
He was a prime supporter of Khrushchev’s “De-Stalinization” policy, which lead him to become the second powerful person in the USSR. Mikoyan was the most important ambassador sent to Cuba, to talk negotiations with Fidel Castro during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Throughout the crisis, Mikoyan’s one goal was to prevent nuclear war. He was a dove and believed
Fidel plays a significant role in the Crisis in terms of alignment with a great power in conflict, resulting with an involvement in a conflict himself and the agreement of the placement of nuclear weapons on the Cuban soil, that triggered American anger even more than it had already been done after two failed invasion attempts. Section E – Conclusion To justify the significance of Fidel’s role in the Cuban Missile Crisis aspects such as Khrushchev’s real intentions and Kennedy’s actions must be taken into account. Knowing the lack of respect that Khrushchev had for Fidel and the amount of effort that the US put in attempting the invasion of Cuba, twice, the conclusion can be made as the Cuba was an area that was significant to the Cold War and for the two great powers to balance with each other. The amount of effort it took to solve the problem (an exchange of letters) shows that the problem wasn’t as great since it was easy to resolve. Word count: 1,529