Constitution and altered it by explicitly protecting the institution of slavery. This peculiar institution was what made the Confederacy unique. Sectionalism over economic, social, political, and constitutional issues regarding slavery continued from Buchanan’s inauguration in 1857 until secession after Lincoln’s election in 1860. “The expansion of slavery into western territories provided the catalyst for the growing perceptions of northerners and southerners that they held different intentions of the republic’s future.” “In the South, loyalty to slavery and its required expansion became the hallmark of party politics as the region’s politicians—Whigs, Know-Nothing, and Democrat—competed to demonstrate their loyalty to southern rights.” This loyalty was a significant characteristic of Southern Nationalism. The flag of the Confederacy was also another symbol of Southern Nationalism.
The United States Civil War is possible one of the most meaningful, bloodstained and controversial war fought in American history. Northern Americans against Southern Americans fought against one another for a variety of motives. These motives aroused from a wide range of ideologies that stirred around the states. In James M. McPherson’s What they fought for: 1861-1865, he analyzes the Union and Confederate soldier’s morale and ideological components through the letters they wrote to love ones while at war. While, John WhiteClay Chambers and G. Kurt Piehler depict Civil War soldiers through their letters detailing the agonizing battles of war in Major Problems in American Military History.
Dew grew up believing the secession movement was a noble cause. He writes about, “boyhood dreaming about Confederate glory,” and confesses that he is “still hit with a profound sadness when I read over the material on which this study is based” (Dew, 2). He believes a lot of people are still being misled to believe that this cause should be glorified, when in reality, it was meant to restrict freedom and human rights. Charles Dew’s Apostles of Disunion is intended to end the discussion on whether or not the South's primary goal in 1861 was to defend its slave-based culture. The book allows all of us who struggle with myth of states’ freedom and rights as the cause of the war to critically analyze the part that race played in the war.
The developments that occured in the United States of America during the Civil War and Reconstruction Era were arguably revolutionary. During these years of 1860 to 1877, not only did social change take place, but also constitutional change. By the end of the Civil War, many aspects were questioned, such as black status and readmission of former confederate states. At the end of it all, three amendments had been ratified and southerners were forced to accept that blacks were their equals. With many changes happening, the constitution had a full revolution by adding three amendments that challenged the beliefs of many, while social changes merely took a step up and didn’t last long.
Although there was a period following the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 and 1868 in which former slaves were granted citizenship, their involvement in politics became rendered by the lack of education previously provided to slaves and inability of “withstanding the economic, political, and paramilitary opposition of the white majority” (Frederickson 382). Frederickson argues African Americans simply did not have the time or preparation to oppose racist forces. Using paramilitary forces, southern redeemers easily made threats to reconstruction forces as seen through the emergence of the violent Ku Klux Klan during the election of 1866. The opportunity for African Americans to gain a stance in society was short lived by the racist efforts of democrats in the south and impartial ideals from
After the Civil War, the nation was very obliterated - metaphorically and literally. Tensions between the North and the South were very high, and the fact that a lot of the land where battles had been fought was destroyed didn’t help at all. One side of Congress used Reconstruction to try and fix a divided country, while Congress in the South were behind the scenes tearing it apart even more. “‘The Compromise of 1877’ was the South’s last bit of ammunition against African Americans and abolitionists.” (Source 4) Since this tore the nation apart even more, and the South was not agreeing with anything that national congress was saying, national congress was forced to make an actual
Barbara Diefendorf's book, The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre is a window into the struggle of religion and secular power during the Protestant Reformation. Beyond the social elitism, mob mentality is an ever-present force that is ignited during the Religious Wars. Differences in religion are a contributor to factional tensions. Manipulation by religious leaders and misunderstanding between the two religious sects’ practices create this religious tension. Although Protestants and Catholics share the core teachings of Christianity, a struggle for secular power, feelings of tribalism, and conflicting religious ideals not only solidify the schism between these two sects of Christianity, but escalated these tensions to bloodshed.
The Civil War stole the lives of 620,000 brave American men, amounting to the bloodiest conflict in United States history. One hundred fifty-three years since the end of the Civil War, racism still persists throughout American society. Why, after all these years, does hate continue to pervade this great nation? Why were the sins of our past not redressed during Reconstruction? As the Era of Reconstruction began in the latter half of the 1860s, the Union was forced to confront the following question: Who is an American?
It is often regarded that words do not do justice for historical structures because of their unexplainable nature. This proves true for many landmarks throughout Europe; however, the Vatican is one that has been deemed “a dagger in the heart of Italy”(Paine). The Vatican dates back to the 4th century when the construction began and has since served as a centerpiece of the Catholic Church (History.com). Within Vatican City, travelers often visit locations such as St. Peter’s Basilica, the Vatican Library or St. Peter 's Square, however, I believe that the Sistine Chapel is an essential location to visit because of the symbolism embedded within the chapel. The Sistine Chapel is not only one of the most recognizable sanctuaries in the world, but it is also considered the highmark of renaissance art (Szalay).
The Brief history During the post-Civil War and Reconstruction Era, the slave’s fight for their freedom turned into a fight for their survival in the world really quick. In 1857, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court had declared that “when it comes to a black man they had no rights in which a white man was bound to respect." Less than ten years later, after the cruel blood, sweat and suffering that happened in event of the Civil War, the Fourteenth Amendment was then added to the constitution which was revoking the decision and ensuring people’s citizenship, with all of its rights and the responsibilities, to everyone born in the United States regardless of the persons race. Even with the new Amendment in place, many were left trying to determine