INTRODUCTION The emergence and accessibility of TV in the late 1950’s / early 1960’s was the single biggest development in media and mass communications since the emergence of radio broadcast. Disruptive technology, like TV, has dramatic impact on societies around the world. Television is a world onto itself. Cultivation theory is generally perceived to examine the long terms effects of television on the viewers perception of the reality in the society in which they live. The theory itself has evolved since Gerbner’s conception of cultivation analysis in 1960s.
The primary proposition of cultivation theory states that the more time people spend 'living ' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television. Signorelli points out that under this umbrella, perceptions of the world are heavily influenced by the images and ideological messages transmitted through popular television media (2003). Cultivation theory suggests that exposure to television, over time, subtly 'cultivates ' viewers ' perceptions of reality. Television is a medium of the socialization of most people into standardized roles and behaviors. Its function is in a word, enculturation.
Drawing from this model we deduce that people watch television because it offers them culturally rich messages. Therefore, according to this theory people will choose to watch television depending on the content that is aired. This means that people will have a preference for channels that air content that they can relate
One of the most influential factor is definitely the media. First of all, we need to understand what cultivation means. Cultivation is how media in general affects the individual, in their view of their social reality. By only showing certain points of view, television today has enough power to affect the public discourse and therefore the individuals train of thoughts (Shanahan and Morgan 1999, p.4). This may cause certain misconceptions about different aspects of life, than one’s own aspects, thus altering their opinions but that is not all it causes.
Cultivation theory is a theory founded by George Gerbner that explains whether or not the audience of a television program will be affected by watching it. Ways that the audience could be affected by television viewing are by becoming more violent, more sad, or happier after viewing. Television is the use of the study for cultivation because people tend to watch more television than listen to radio or read media sources. Also, television is used for the study because it is the most accessible and many people get the same perspective from a program that they are viewing rather than listening to radio or reading a news article. Most analysis’ deal with the immediate reaction of viewers after they complete watching a television program; cultivation theory is based on a long term basis that sets it apart from other theories according to Signorielli.
Cultural studies is an academic space of empirically, theoretically and politically engaged cultural analysis coined by British academics during the time period of 1950-1970. The concept has been further analysed and examined by theorists from different areas of expertise around the world. Based on the theorisations of Marxism came about The Birmingham and The Frankfurt school of cultural studies. In the essay I will consider the differences between these two schools in relation to their approaches to culture and audience. In particular I will compare and contrast the works of key theorists such as Adorno and Stuart Hall in relation to their theories of mass culture and audience.
Cultivation Theory was developed by Professor George Gerbner dean of the Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Pennsylvania in the mid 1960’s. His aim was to study how the TV may influence the viewers (Chandler**). Cultivation Theory examines how watching television affects the behavior and attitudes of people (Williams, 1996). Ever since the television was introduced more than 50 years ago, its use has been a subject of controversy in most cultures. Watching T.V has been blamed for various issues affecting the society.
Cultivation theory (cultivation hypothesis or cultivation analysis) was introduced by Professor George Gerbner who was the dean of the Annenberg School of Communications at the University of Pennsylvania. In the mid-1960, Professor Gerbner originated to research long-term impacts of media which is called cultural indicators. The intention of this project is to study how audiences’ behavior especially violent behavior can be shaped by media. Moreover, Gerbner found that television has become more popular in societies, especially in America, and TV has a great influence in order to lead audience perspective. Furthermore, television cause a lot of impacts which are micro level and macro level to viewers.
Cultivation theory, originally composed by G. Gerbner posits that heavy television exposure can have long-term effects on the attitude of the audience. According to this theory, the audience create a world of ideas and mental content which is analogous thereby, generating a bias towards reality as per the content displayed. This theory is also associated with the Mean World Syndrome because the audience who spend prolonged hours before television tends to believe whatever they’re watching is applicable or true around the world. Ultimately, they believe that the world is mean due to the violence and cruelty depicted in the media. It also has been noticed that as the content changes over time, so does the attitude.
Social learning theory, developed by Alburt Bandura (1994), suggests that human learning is influenced by people and events presented in the media. Cultivation theory proposes that the more time spent watching television, the more the viewer will come to see the real world in terms of the values, portrayals, and ideologies delivered by television (Gerbner et al., 1976). Though the experiment was not testing these theories, they essentially point to the fact that repeated exposure to negative depictions of older characters through Disney films is likely to lead children to distrust and dislike