In the nineteenth century modern science, which is based on scientific methods, took the place of the appeals to divine and religions. The rapid social change and the great success of natural scientific approaches encouraged people to explore the social world with more systematic, rational and empirical methods which results in the emergency of social science (Benton and Craib, 2001:22). Due to the lack of formalized rules for studying societies, sociologists developed a series of principles for research which could help them explore different social phenomena (Bilton et al, 2002:444). Emile Durkheim, whose conception of sociology was one of the earliest attempts to explain how the society could be studied scientifically, set out his methodological
“The Elizabethan Period was the age of the Renaissance, of new ideas and new thinking” (Alchin). It was a time of many advances in a large variety of fields. Some of the most notorious advances during this time were in the field of science. Overall, the most well-known revolutions in science of the Elizabethan Era are attributed to the Scientific Revolution, which brought about many changes, especially in astronomy, physics, and mathematics, and innovations, which had a strong impact on the way of life during this time. The Scientific Revolution “refers to historical changes in thought & belief, to changes in social & institutional organization, that unfolded in Europe between roughly 1550-1700” (Hatch).
With the development of science, some theories of Darwin have become accepted facts. And in science the fact is the truth.  For hundreds of years, people’s minds were imprisoned by theology. However, Darwin’s theories had changed people’s way of knowing the world that with a scientific view to discover the world. In a sense, Darwin’s theory of evolution is a revolutionary breakthrough in natural
But it is mostly believed that the movement began in the 19th century. It began in England to overthrow the dominant trends of Victorian England. A lot of factors added to its rise. The industrial revolution was another very massive factor that contributed to it. The development in modern industrial societies and growth of cities were also important.
There was a crisis that needed to be taken care of, and how would the country handle it? The industry needed something new. The Industrial Revolution can be viewed as one of the most significant reason towards the rise of economic powers in this country. It helped the country in so many ways. This was the start of a new life style for the people of the United States.
Fukuyama's work "The End of History and the Last Man" started a broad discussion in modern sociology and philosophy. In the book Fukuyama tries to answer the questions “Is history directional?” And “Can the scientific method cease to dominate our lives, and is it possible for industrialized societies to return to pre-modern, prescientific ones? Is the directionality of history, in short, reversible?” (Fukuyama, 1992, p.80-81) As the supposed mechanism of directed historical changes, he chooses the natural sciences, because of scientific knowledge, various historical changes, the form of production changes, culture, and education and so on. In this essay, I will comment on the logic of the reasoning of Fukuyama and what he tried to outline in his work. Fukuyama believes that the first of the ways that modern science generates change is a military competition.
1We have all heard of Charles Darwin the man who discovered and create the theory of evolution. He was a very important figure and revolutionize the science world but a name not as thoroughly known is Ernst Haeckel. ernst Haeckel helped both legitimize and add on to Darwin's theory. One of the things he is more famous for is creating evolutionary trees. These evolutionary trees were usually shaped like an actual tree with many branches sprouting off into other species.
What happened was that the behavioralist wanted to copy the ways of the natural sciences to the extent of borrowing their approaches, methods, and tools to use in the study of man. This resulted in the formation of political science. Even though this approach created a more diversified study of politics because it allowed the discipline to transcend beyond the academe, the discipline was still questioned by the people in the same academe Susser (1992) described the development of political science since World War II “as one of the most turbulent and fascinating chapters in its long history. It is a period marked by high hopes and revolutionary change, a period that has witnessed a broadening of the discipline’s subject matter and a striking reorientation in its methods and techniques. But it also a period characterized by deep rifts and heated battles.
Many scientists were and are humanists. Some, such as Sir Arthur Keith (1866-1995), Scottish scientist and anthropologist J B S Haldane, Sigmund Freud, Sir Julian Huxley, and John Maynard Smith did much in the 20th century to spread understanding of science, of human nature and of evolution. Albert Einstein, who worked out the theory of relativity and one of the greatest achievements of the human intellect, was essentially a humanist. Scientific and medical progress has produced new ethical dilemmas, and traditional religious teachings have not always been able to rise to the challenge . It is extremely important for us to believe in the dynamic nature of humanism that takes curiosity, creativity, learning and pursuing knowledge at the forefront of the human experience.
Science[a]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. [b] Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences, which study the material universe; the social sciences, which study people and societies; and the formal sciences, which study logic and mathematics. The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations.  Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine, may also be considered to be applied sciences.  From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the