This essay will be discussing two different theories of learning; Behaviorism and Constructivism. Watson and Skinner, two major theorists of the behaviorist theory tried to prove that human behavior could be controlled and foreseen. Both Skinner and Watson investigated how learning could be affected by a change in ones environment. However, the constructivist theory viewed learning as an exploration of meaning. Piaget and Vygotsky, two of the major advocates for Constructvist theory, both explored factors that could help figure out how children understand learning at different stages in their lives.
This research used the learning style questionnaire to identify the learning style preference/s of the respondents. According to this theory, all people are capable to understand our environment through language, spatial representation, mathematical analysis, musical thinking, Kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal. It implies that students have different strength of intelligences to carry out different tasks. The three most valuable senses in learning are vision, hearing, and touch. Meanwhile, constructivism helped the researcher in conceptualizing this study.
He developed his Cognitive Development Theory to explain the process by which the infant would eventually develop into an individual capable of thinking and reasoning. Ahmad, Ch, Batool, Sittar, and Malik (2016) described how Piaget viewed a child’s cognitive development as being “a work in progress” because it is reorganization of mental processes due to the maturation of the child into an adult and the impact of the environment. He believed that every child has to construct an understanding of the world around him or her and will then experience the differences that exist between what he or she already knows and what he or she will discover in the environment (p. 74). According to Thomas (2005), Piaget 's theory has three basic components to it. First, schemas are the actual building blocks of knowledge.
Present situation analysis may be posited as a complement to target situation analysis (Robinson, 1991; Jordan, 1997). While target situation analysis tries to establish what the learners are expected to be like at the end of the language course, present situation analysis attempts to identify what they are like at the beginning of it. As Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998, 125) state "a PSA estimates strengths and weaknesses in language, skills, learning experiences." If the destination point to which the students need to get is to be established, first the starting point has to be defined, and this is provided by means of PSA. The term PSA (Present Situation Analysis) was first proposed by Richterich and Chancerel (1980).
I t means the potential learning area where children and reach with scaffolding of MKO. The significant part of Vygotsky theory is that he consider not only about children’s mental development, but also the external affection on mental function, which Piaget had missed out. Besides the above concepts, Vygotsky points out that language plays a key role in children’s thought forming. He believes thought is result of language
It should however be noted that the usefulness of chunking in L2 has been argued by some scholars and has been proven to be fruitful in many cases (Krishnamurthy 2003: 293). From a structural point of view, this paper will first explain what chunking is form a psychological perspective, then go on to explain how this concept can be applied to languages, then examine how children use chunking for acquiring language and finally look at evidence that suggests that the use of multiword chunks exists in the acquisition of language by children. 2. Chunking: Firstly, the process of
The first one is the focus on linguistic aspects (assessing pragmalinguistic ability) where teachers assessing learners’ receptive and productive pragmatic ability with a focus on the language forms. The second one is the focus on cultural aspects (assessing sociopragmatic ability) where teachers assessing to what extent do learners understand the use of the L2 and its likely consequence in specific dimensions of the target culture. Third, the focus on the analytic aspects (assessing metapragmatic ability) where teachers assess learners’ ability to analyze the pragmatics of the L2. Learners can collect samples of authentic request discourses in L1 Arabic and in the L2 English. Learners analyze how relative social status, distance, and imposition can influence the language of request and the use of request strategies.
Nation (2001) considers vocabulary learning as a deliberate process which possesses intentional character. He established his description on the properties and qualities of a strategy which fulfills teacher’s aims. There have been several studies conducted in order to help learners improve their vocabulary learning process. In support of the idea that learners need to be assisted as to learn how to acquire vocabulary by
In other words, SLA researchers paid attention not to languages but to learners that is a subject to acquire a language. Shirahata (2006) cited Corder (1967) as proposing error analysis as a new approach for SLA research replaced by habit formation theory and the CAH. Error analysis is an approach to research a mechanism of language acquisition of learners by describing and analyzing systematically errors that are made in the process of L2 acquisition. He claimed that a developmental sequence of L2 learners can be clarified by knowing what errors they made. Through error analysis, it had been gradually revealed that the language use of L2 learners is not different only from that of a native speaker of the target language but also from a language system of their