We then examine Edward Sutherland’s theory to begin to understand that, what we have learned from behaviors are taught. The differential association theory has become the most talked about learning theory of deviance. The theory focuses on how individuals can learn to become criminals. The theory does not have concern for why individuals become criminals. Criminology is the knowledge regarding crime and delinquency as a social issue.
In the criminology world there are many theories ranging from micro-level to macro-level to explain juvenile delinquency. Sutherland’s differential association theory is the theory I believe explains juvenile delinquency. The reason I believe differential association theory explains juvenile delinquency is because a huge proportion of delinquency happens with friends (Bates & Swan, 2018).Differential association theory is when someone learn behaviors and norms from people within a group they have contact with (Bates &Swan, 2018). Differential association theory explains cross social dimensions, such as class, gender, and race from a sociological aspect (Bates & Swan, 2018). Sutherland also made nine propositions that explains his theory.
Individuals tend to choose friends with whom they share the same interests and personalities. Antisocial individuals, outcasts and delinquents will be found together and will therefore motivate and influence each other into violent or criminal behaviour. In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states that behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. A normal offender will find a crime rewarding because he has learnt to commit a crime from observing people he models. These individuals are exposed to high levels of aggression and other factors portrayed by models that range from family, members of the community and neighbours, friends, celebrities and characters from movies and books.
Fourth, When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (a) techniques of committing the crime, which is sometimes very complicated, sometimes simple; (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. Fifth, the specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable. Sixth, a person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law. Seventh, Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. Eighth, the process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.
One way to stop the crime is to talk to the police or someone who will listen to anything that is been said. Another reason why you can stop crime from happening is to talk to the kids at the school, and in your community about why is crime is a topic that hinders people to succeed. As far as adults are concerned, they should be more mindful and more responsible of their action. Adults should also be aware of why crime is prevalent, and why crime is
In the article “On the Punishment of Teen Killers” Jennifer Jenkins argues on the behalf of victims’ families. She claims that juvenile crime is social issue as American culture promotes violence in youth, “we in America have to own this problem, with weapons so easily available to our youth, and the violence-loving culture in which we bring them in” (par. 5). Although, Jenkins claims that teenagers should be given life without parole, this quote directly challenges her argument. Jenkins explicitly states that “America has to own this problem”.
This was especially true in the South. Education is not completely reserved to a schoolhouse in this scenario. During this time period, officers and legislation also wanted to teach criminals how to act. In penitentiaries and juvenile detention centers, education was used as a form of reformation for convicts. Document A says “... and by giving them industrious and orderly habits, rescuing them from vice and rendering them valuable members of society.” Teaching criminals to do good for their community is of course a good thing, but they were taught through religion.
In criminology, differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. The differential association theory is the most talked about of the learning theories of deviance. (DAT). Theories of criminality are derived from distinct images of human behavior. I chose the movie American history X and the theory is Sutherland’s differential Association theory (DAT).
Crime cuts across many disciplines such as sociology, psychology and criminology. Each of these disciplines try to explain why crime is committed and how people are compelled to commit crime, a good example is sociology. Sociology attributes crime due to poor socialization in society, while psychology attributes crime mainly due to biological and Pathological criminogenic behaviors. Many scholars have tried to define crime and each has given many reasons why crime is committed. Scholars such Cesare Lombroso attribute
Crime is defined as an act that violates the constitution such as theft, assault, drugs/alcohol offense, curfew violations, and murder. Despite being punishable by law, many people still commit these crimes including teenagers. Teenagers should be punished for their crimes because they have the capability of recognizing their responsibility as a good citizen in the society. They are old enough to know the consequences of every action they make. According to The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), teenagers are more likely to commit crimes compared to adults.
However, in Sutherland’s differential association theory he states that criminal behavior is learned from your intimate groups and the definitions of committing crime outweigh the unfavorable definitions (Scarpitti 2009). Since these offenders vary from investors to corrupt public officials they must have learned this behavior from someone they trusted and respected. Someone eventually told them it was “ok” to act this way and once they got enough of these definitions favorable to this crime they started committing it themselves. For example, a new police officer joins the force and the officer training him is doing some “under the table” dealings while out I the field. The new police officer talks to other members in the department and they reinforce these definitions favorable to this criminal behavior.
Thesis: Even though adult court systems can teach young criminals the true consequences of their actions better than juvenile faculties, juvenile facilities positively impact their lives by providing them with safety, giving them more attention through the use of rehabilitation methods and deterring children from crime. II. Body: A. Background Info: Within the court system, there lie two divisions –the adult court system and the juvenile court system. In the juvenile court system, most cases are dealt with through the use of rehabilitation methods by changing the child’s lifestyle.
Social theory implies that criminal behavior is learned through close relations with others, it asserts that children are born good but learned to be bad. This theory states that all people have the potential to become criminals because modern society presents many opportunities for illegal activity but one has the choice to not engage. If a child is raised in a clean community that has strong morals and if that child has positive role models at home and in the community, they more likely to grow up achieving her goals. In all while it maybe true that your surroundings and the people around you can be the reason behind someone becoming apart of the criminal justice system, but in my oppioin I believe it the person themselves. Whether we like it or not we know right from wrong, we may not see it when we are young but as time progresses we become
Therefore, any fearful memory or trauma can influence them or trigger them to react off of impulse and commit the crime. If the brain is naturally developed this way , their is no need for a juvenile to be treated as an adult when an adult brain and Juvenile brain are completely distinctive. The article “ Adolescent brains open to change “ by Laura Sanders elaborates on the common normality between adolescents. “ This dramatic adolescent makeover represents a window of opportunity known as a sensitive period, allowing the brain to be selectively shaped by the outside world”. Many here would probably object that you cannot let the outside world shape you, however these are what studies have proven.
Essay 5 draft 3 The murder rate of Chicago in 2015 is almost four times higher than New York City and more than 2.5 times higher than Los Angeles. Marshall Rosenberg, a psychologist, created the Nonviolent Communication which helps people resolve conflicts and differences in a peaceful way. “All violence is the result of people tricking themselves into believing that their pain derives from other people and that consequently those people deserve to be punished” (Rosenberg). Nowadays there are so many ways to get a hold of a gun on the streets illegally. It is just a matter of knowing the right people.