Each group was assigned a different percent of sucrose solution out of the four variables; 0% , 5%, 10%, and 15%. After we filled the beaker we then got two potato cores. Once we had the cores we cut the skin off the ends. Following this we then cut the two potato cores into four 2.00 cm potato cores. After they were cut into 2.00 cm each we found the mass.
Desalination through reverse osmosis removes the salts from the water with the help of membrane. These membranes are non porous and allows certain materials to pass through them. The holes in the mesh of reverse osmosis membrane are of the size that allows only water molecules to pass through them, leaving behind the salt molecules. Salt is a prospective by-product of desalination by reverse osmosis. High operating pressure is required to push the water through these membranes.
Potassium ions diffuse out the cell due to the concentration gradient, creating a potential difference across the membrane. Other ions, such as sodium, are unable to cross the membrane and thus remain concentrated on one side. Consequently, the increased negative charge created inside the cell attracts potassium ions back across the membrane into the cell. This force is called electrostatic pressure. When the potential difference across the membrane is around -70mV, the electrical gradient exactly balances the chemical gradient and equilibrium is reached.
While other channels allow some flow of potassium ions back out of the cell, the sodium ions cannot easily get back in to replace the lost positive charges. The overall result is that the exterior of the cell has a net positive charge and the interior has a net negative charge. The difference in charge between the interior and exterior of the cell is called the resting membrane potential. A nerve impulse begins when a stimulus disturbs the plasma membrane on a dendrite, causing sodium channels to open. Sodium ions flow into the cell lessening the charge difference at that location.
This lets us to notice what in the red blood cell was able to permeable across the cell membrane, since they were placed in different osmolality solutions we are able observe the tonicity of the cell’s behavior. When the Erythrocyte is placed into a hypotonic solution, the cell will swell because water will move gradually into the cell. The concentration of solutes are lower outside than the inside of the cell, so the water will move in the cell and cause the cell to swell. If the cell was placed to hypertonic solution, the solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell, so the water moves out the cell and causes the cell to shrink. When the red blood cell is placed into a isotonic solution, the concentration of the
Endocytosis is either nonspecific of specific. There are three types of endocytosis. One form is receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is where receptor proteins inserted in the membrane identify certain surface characteristics of substances to be included into the cell. Phagocytosis, or "cellular eating," is where particles larger than macromolecules are ingested. Pinocytosis, or cellular drinking," involves the capture of fluids.
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
In the lab, through calculation, the value of X is determined to equal to 5.361211229, which is close to 5. Therefore, the hydrate is probably CuSO4•5H2O. However, the percentage of error, 7.224%, is not small enough, and the crystals turn out to have a yellowish green color instead of to be white. This can be eliminated by decreasing the amount of hydrate, avoid touching the hydrate with other substances during the reaction, and increasing the intensity of the flame and the time of
Each compartment encompasses a certain amount of fluid proportionate for the size of one’s body and the size of the compartment. The extracellular fluid holds 20% of one’s body weight and the intracellular contains 40%. The amount of fluid in one’s body must be maintained for adequate function. If the fluid becomes excessive then it will dilute the sodium inside the body and cause electrolyte imbalances which will affect systems such as the central nervous system and cardiovascular system. This is a result of the extracellular space containing more fluid than the intracellular space in relation to fluid movement trying to maintain balance due to the lack of sodium and excess fluid.
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL When the neuron is not sending a signal at rest the membrane potential called as resting membrane potential. In this stage, permeability of K+ much greater than Na+ When a neuron is at rest, the inside of the neuron is negative relative to the outside. Although the concentrations of the different ions endeavor to balance out on both sides of the membrane, they cannot because the cell membrane sanctions only some ions to pass through channels (ion channels). At rest, potassium ions (K+) can cross through the membrane facilely. Additionally at rest, chloride ions (Cl-) and sodium ions (Na+) have a more arduous time crossing.
We then flipped the dish and sectioned it off into 4 sections, which then were marked with the specific genotype that would be inoculated into that section. The initials of the group were also put on the dish. Then we used an inoculating loop to cut out sections of the fungus. The inoculating loop was sterilized with a flame and let cool down before touching the fungus. After cutting a block of the fungus, we placed it on the petri dished in the section that was appropriately marked for that specific strain.
Two forces drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane: a chemical force, or in this case, or the ion 's concentration gradient, and an electrical force, or the effect of the membrane potential on an ions movement. An anion is a negatively charged ion. A cation is a positively charged
The refractory period, though very small, is divided into two parts, the absolute and relative periods. In the absolute refractory period, no action potentials can occur, no matter what the stimulation. In the relative refractory period, an action potential can happen if a stimulus stronger than the normal one occurs. When the Na+ channels refract, the K+ channels, open due to the depolarization, allow potassium to leave the cell. Because the inside of the cell has become more positive due to the influx of sodium, the outside is relatively more negative, attracting the potassium.
This makes buffer 1 a greater buffer compared to buffer 2. This is not true for Buffer 2 because the because NaOH was added to acetic acid to form acetate ions as conjugate base: The graph 1 shows the buffer capacity of buffer 1 is at pH 4.559 as it takes about 7.5 mL to change the pH. Whereas the buffer capacity of buffer 2 is at pH 4.756, which takes 5.9 mL to change the pH. These number shows buffer 1 has higher buffer capacity. The pH at 4.559 is significant as once the pH exceeded this value, the buffer will become ineffective.