Having different temperatures of potatoes would help us see which one of three potato temperature would produce more enzymes. The dependant variable was the the amount of activity (bubbles) produced. Measuring this would help us determine which temperature of potato produced more activity. The potato with the most bubbles, the room temperature potato, would be the one with the most enzyme activity. There were many controlled variables.
It takes non-acidic potassium iron out of the stomach and replaces it with an acidic hydrogen ion, which makes things acidic. By putting more hydrogen ions into the stomach, the pump makes its contents more acidic. But acid secretion into the stomach stops when a person takes a proton pump inhibitor that stops the proton pump from working. PPIs stop cells in the lining of the stomach producing too much acid. This can help to prevent ulcers from forming or assist in their healing process.
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate. All enzymes are under the class of protein biomolecule. Amino acids are the basic units that are combined to make up an enzyme.
The competitive inhibitor that was added was lactose. We predicted this because competitive inhibitors block and bind to the active site so it will slow down the binding of the desired substrate. An alternative hypothesis that came up was that the reaction of substrate would stay consistent as if no inhibitor was added. The enzyme could reject the inhibitor if it does not fit in the active site, causing the substrate to bind as it normally would. Our results showed that with the addition of lactose, the reaction did slow down a considerably
According to the collision theory, a reaction can only occur if particles collide with sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy and with correct geometrical orientation (3). Increasing temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles which means that an increase in temperature will increase the speed of the hydrogen peroxide and the catalase molecules which
Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reaction, and they work best at their optimal conditions (optimum pH, temperature etc.) but when the environment is not close to the optimum conditions, the enzymes denature and do not function anymore1. An excellent example would of the effect of temperature on yeast fermentation would be that the bacterial cells if exposed to very high temperature (above the optimal) would no longer function since their enzymes are denatured. The yeast would produce the most Carbon dioxide in the optimal temperature (45 °C ±1/°C) and other temperatures below the optimal temperature would not produce sufficient Carbon dioxide and any temperature above will produce too much that it will lead to the sinking of the bread and death of yeast because its enzymes have been denatured, therefore the reaction will stop. The bread will certainly sink if is not exposed to the right temperature the yeast will not ferment
These enzymes catalyze the light-independent reactions (Rate of photosynthesis: limiting factors). As the enzymes approach approach their optimum temperature, they begin to work faster and therefore increase the rate of photosynthesis (Photosynthesis). Some of the factors that could have affected the results of this lab and caused the outlier were the temperature of the solutions not being maintained throughout the entire duration of the experiment and also not properly taking all of the gases out of the mesophyll cells and replacing it with the baking soda solution. Future research can include performing this experiment on different types of plants that do photosynthesis to add to the existing data of this
Controlled Variables The variables which are controlled are the size of the beaker, the temperature and the volume of the solutions added, such as the distilled water, HCL, sodium iodide solution and the Iron (III) nitrate 9-hydrate solution. The volume must be controlled because each condition consisted of different concentrations of the reactants, the volume would differ in each one. Constant volume was kept to make sure that all conditions had the same number of moles of reactants. Reactions with smaller volumes may have reacted faster than those with larger volumes because successful collisions would occur more frequently. This was controlled by adding a sufficient amount of distilled water to each condition, so the volume stays consistent.
Because salt can be dissolved in water, it is said to have high solubility. Sodium acetate also dissolves very easily in water, especially in warm water, so it has high solubility too(1). There are 2 ways to change the solubility of a solution. One way to change it is to raise the temperature because at higher temperatures most solids are extra soluble. The increase of temperature has 2 effects on almost all solutes that are solid.
Without enzymes in our body, it would take a longer period of time for digestion to occur. Enzymes bind themselves to substrates, thus lowering the activation energy of the chemical reaction they are catalyzing. This will increase the reaction speed making digestion to occur faster. Pepsin is an enzyme found in the gastric juice in the stomach. It is produced by the gastric cells and it is formed when pepsinogen is released.
Enzymes are catalysts in biological systems, that lower the activation energy, so that molecules can begin reacting with each other. Since enzymes have a very selective active site, if the enzyme shape is changed or denatured, it won’t allow the enzyme to bind. Catalytic enzymes break down the toxic hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. (Bryer) (Baker) The purpose of these labs were to see how different concentrations of pH, and hydrogen peroxide would affect the enzymes, catalase and
purpose the propose of this experiment was too see if the chemical reaction of a enzyme can be made faster. Hypothesis I think that a warm environment would be best to make an enzyme’s reaction faster. because a protein can move faster in heat. Materials -pan -50ml graduated cylinder -hydrogen peroxide -air stopper -water Graphs data A time 12 drops 8 drops 0 0 0 30 0 0.5 60 0 1 90 0 1 120 0 1 150 0 1 180 0 1.5 210 0 1.5 240 0 1.5 270 0 1.5 300 1 1.5 330 2 1.5 360 2 1.5 390 3 1.5 420 3 1.5 450 3 2 480 3 2 510 3 2 540 4 2.5 570 4 2.5 600 5 2.5 Data B time cold warm 0 0 0 30 1 1 60 2 1 90 2 2 120 2 2 150 2 2 180 2 2 210 2.5 2 240 3 2 270 3 2 300 3 2 330 3 3 360 3.5 3 390 3.5 3 420 3.5 3 450 3
If this test is positive, the hydrogen peroxide which is dropped onto the colonies in the streak plate will begin to bubble. If bubbles are produced that means the organism is an aerobe. Because H2O2 is such a potent agent, if an organism lives in the presence of O2, they need to be able to break down the H2O2 to survive. The bacteria tested positive for catalase, as the hydrogen peroxide was dropped onto the streak plate, it immediately began to produce bubbles.
Be sure to mix the cuvette and clean its surface with Kimwipes before each reading. After record your data and determine the absolute rate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Based on the data and observations the hypothesis was accepted. It was accepted because when pH were changed to a variety of levels the transmittance began to get higher reaction rates. The increased absorbance means greater amount of product and a higher reaction rate will be produced.