The Effects And Effects Of Urbanization

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The concentration of population in urban areas and the subsequent urbanization are world-wide phenomena. The various effects of urbanization have been studied since the 19th century and were often considered a problem that could be, and should be, controlled via planning and policies. This kind of approach has its roots in physicalism, a concept that urban problems could be solved by shaping the physical urban environment (Batty & Marshall, 2009). Ever since the 19th century, with the rise of Urbanism as a science (Soria y Puig, 1999), planning and policies aimed at manipulating the physical environment were seen as the solution to controlling the effects caused by urban growth. However, as urbanization is of great complexity, affecting the urban structure at multiple spatial and temporal scales, the effects of policies and urban plans regularly have unforeseen consequence (Batty, 2014). Controlling the city, its effects, problems and inhabitants was not that straightforward.
At the end of the 1940s the digital computer appeared, which allowed rapid and large-scale numerical processing. This new technology enabled researchers to operationalize their mathematical theories on spatial systems via urban modeling in an attempt to unravel the urban complexity (Hall, 1996). Consequently, this led to a diverse array of quantitative simulation models that attempted to explore urban growth patterns. A drawback of these spatial models was that they were complicated and

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