Cerebral Palsy is caused by brain injuries or brain malformation that occurs before during or after birth that affects the brain's development. There are many ways to prevent Cerebral Palsy according to which category it falls into. There are three categories, congenital, acquired and genetic predisposition. Congenital cases are the result of brain damage before the child is born and often happens because of birth complications. It can be acquired in multiple ways such as having a stroke or being in a car accident and it may also be the effect of shaken-baby-syndrome, it can also happen because of an infection or condition that slows down the blood flow to the brain.
There are different models to mental health offering a different explanations, approaches and interventions. The Diseased/Medical/Biological model has the belief that mental abnormalities are caused by biochemical, physiological or genetic causes, and therefore, treatment is through medical procedures such as drug therapy, ECT or brain surgery. Genetics studiessuggest that mental health problems are inherited from parents and there is evidence to support this. Neuroimaging states that structural changes in the brain can cause mental illness. In various mental illnesses, volumetric changes, reduction in cortical volume and ventricular atrophy can be seen in the brain and this may well contribute to the cause of the problem.
Primary or essential thrombocytosis happens when abnormal cells in the bone marrow make too many platelets. Reactive thrombocytosis happens when a condition like an infection or an injury causes too many platelets to form. What are the causes? The exact cause of primary thrombocytosis is not known. Reactive thrombocytosis may be caused by: Having your spleen surgically removed (splenectomy).
Finally, the vegetative state can be a as a result of progressive brain damage. This is a situation where the brain gets damaged gradually as a result of diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease or a brain tumour and eventually leads to the individual going into a vegetative state (Gosseries et al, 2011). Categories of the Vegetative stage There are two categories of the vegetative state depending on the length that the patient has been in the state. The two categories are the following: i. Continuing/ persistent vegetative
Other problems include multiple sclerosis, in which damaged nerves prevent signals from traveling along them, and meningitis, which causes an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The nervous system is formed of two parts that are integrally linked with each other. The brain and the nervous system has multiple functions that are vital for normal functioning of the body. Transmission of nerve
In terms of the pathogenesis, the causes are various and must be implicated in one or several primary diseases, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, heart problem, infections, lupus, purpura, etc. Some of them will influence patient’s kidney function severely and result in kidney failure eventually, which is known as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Others can lead patients to have acute kidney injury (AKI) and cause severe reactions within a short time. During the treatment for renal parenchymal disease, to control the primary diseases is something necessary, but not
Parental isolation, social isolation, and the refusal to try new things are all gateways to this awful disease. Depression is rampant in today’s society, especially among children and young adults. Depression can change peoples lives in an instant, and it is an illness today. Although, we can combat this syndome by , so that an entire generation is able to live a content, full, and free
1.6 PARTS OF THE BRAIN AFFECTED DUE TO CEREBRAL PALSY Disorders in muscle and posture (or movement disorders) of CP are all associated with which area that affects the brain. The motor cortex in the brain controls and helps in the movement of the body. The motor regions have many sections, each of which has many functions in the body. (a) (b) Fig: 1 (a) Motor region of parietal lobe of the brain. (b) Common parts of the brain affected by Cerebral palsy.
The brainstem is responsible for breathing and heart rate. The cerebellum is responsible for proper motor abilities and posture.The lobes are: the frontal lobes, parietal lobes, occipital lobes & temporal lobes. Different functions require the working of different lobes ( Myers, 2013). Injury to the brain may affect the functioning of these parts and lobes of the brain. Traumatic brain injury occurs due to an external impact which may be caused by automobile accidents, playing sports such as football, hockey, ice skating ( Bodack, 2010).
Head trauma remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability in children and adults Worldwide. [1, 2] They results in lesions or functional damage of the scalp, the cranial bones, the meninges and the brain itself. [1, 2] According to tThe Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention, National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USA report in 2010, The 2010 report of the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention, National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control, USA, documented that an estimated 1.7 million people receives medical treatment for head trauma every year in the United States alone with subsequent high morbidity and mortality recorded.  Head injury from traumatic events is documented
These type of dementia occurs about; this occurs due to the short-term memory loss. The other problem will be visual-spatial areas, reasoning, judgement and insight. Hippocampus is the region where it gets affected by Alzheimer’s disease, not only that there will be
Qualitatively, this disease can be seen with senile plaques on the brain, and neurofibrillary tangles that affect physical changes to the brain. Since there are so many branches of dementia, it can be hard to determine which type of dementia a patient is experiencing, needing to be looked at more closely. Some warning signs of this disease include getting lost, paying for bills and trouble managing money, retelling the same stories, repeatedly asking the same questions, and losing/ misplacing items, but not being able to recall how to find them (532). Though not all people progress through this disease at the same pace and times in their lives, these are just some of the few symptoms and abnormalities that those who have Alzheimer’s can display as opposed to someone their age with a normal functioning brain and having no dementia. Quantitatively, research has shown that Alzheimer’s disease accounts for 50-70% of all neurocognitive disorders (531).