2.2) APPLICATION OF MICROBES IN FOOD INDUSTRY (FOOD AND DRINKS FERMENTATION) Fermentation is the process in which a substance breaks down into a simpler substance. Microorganisms like yeast and bacteria usually play a role in the fermentation process. The contaminants food can brings disease to human and animals. Because of that, in process of produce food from microorganisms there must things that must be care first. The bacteria or microorganisms that will choose must be free from toxin, contains low nucleic acid, and was not type of pathogenic bacteria.
The enzymes produced in semi solid fermentation is exposed to air for undisturbed growth in natural conditions for the development of spore for useful product to a greater extent. The production of enzymes by single bacteria requires more inoculation time as comparison to other fermentation technique. The semi solid fermentation has not gained wide application in enzyme production because microorganisms are not capable to utilize medium ingredients completely during growth due to change in pH. Similarly work has been reported from different scientists for production of xylanase by semi solid fermentation using Thermoactinomyces thalophilus subgroup C (Kohli, U., et al.,
2005), biocompatible (Zinn et al. 2001; Hazer and Steinbuchel 2007) and are produced by bacterial fermentation using renewable resources. Hence PHA has potential as alternative material for conventional petrochemical-based plastics. Biobased materials such as polynucleotides, polyamides, polysaccharides, polyoxoesters, polythioesters, polyanhydrides, polyisoprenoids and polyphenols are potential candidates for substitution of
The inhibitory effect of aqueous chloroform extract of leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera on the activity of α - Glucosidase was investigated. The enzyme activity was determined using glucose oxidase method. The result shows that leaves of Moringa oleifera have 31.2% while its seeds have 21% of inhibitory effect on the activity of α-glucosidase. The inhibitory effect of Moringa oleifera (leaves and seeds) on the activity of α- glucosidase might be responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of Moringa oleifera plant, thus supporting its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, α – Glucosidase inhibitor INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus or (commonly) diabetes is a disorder in which the level
The yeast that was used in making this mixture contained enzymes. Due to the presence of the glucose, the enzymes had already started to respire. The enzymes in this respiring yeast would have broken down the glucose into carbon dioxide and ethanol. When stoppering the boiling tubes with the rubber bungs which had delivery tubes attached to them, it was ensured that they were of a sufficiently tight fit in order to make them airtight. This was done to prevent oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere from entering into the boiling tube.
RESEARCH PLAN Biofilm Inhibition of Chitosan/Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit Hydrogel Film on Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Pseudomnas aeruginosa A. RATIONALE Biofilm is a commonly found multicellular structure in bacteria where cells are attached to each other and embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (Archer, Mazaitis, Costerton, Leid, Powers and Shirtliff, 2011) making it more resistant to antifungal drugs because of its complex structure and extracellular matrix (ECM) (Fanning and Mitchell, 2012). Also, presence of persister cells shuts down the microbial targets of the antibiotics that leads to chronic disease (Archer et al., 2011). Biofilm is the cause of resistance against antimicrobial agents and it protects cells from the host immune
Thus meaning that they are oxidase negative. Enterobacteriaceae are catalase-positive, while both traits with the family have their exceptions, they are often used for the microorganisms identification for example using API strips. While the Enterobacteriaceae ferment a verity of carbohydrates, it is their production of acid and gas by-products from the fermentation of D-Glucose that is one of the most important diagnostic features for their detection and enumeration. Some Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter spp.
Amylase hydrolyses (breaks down) starch and glycogen into more simple and readily digestible forms of sugar (glucose). Commercially available Amylase solutions can be easily used to breakdown complex carbohydrates (e.g. starch) into simpler forms of sugars (e.g. disaccharides and monosaccharaides). Copper Sulphate can block the activity of Amylase, which is a known non-competitive irreversible enzyme inhibitor.
Some microorganisms have further evolved to breakdown tougher plant components such as lignin, which is a component found in plant cell walls. These organisms are known as white rot fungi (WRF) and they possess the ability to break down and degrade lignin into carbon dioxide (CO2). There are other lignocellulose degrading fungi and these are known as brown rot fungi, however they quickly depolymerize cellulose and only modify lignin rather than degrade it like WRF, however both play a huge role in the carbon
A typical want of sustenance makers is to broaden the time span of usability of products. This investigation includes the utilization of cell reinforcements to enhance the oxidative dependability yet additionally keep up a "characteristic" fixings name. For this situation we have assessed the impacts of normal cell reinforcements in light of plant extricates on the hindrance of lipid oxidation keeping in mind the end goal to enhance the shelf life of bundled nourishments including oils or lipids. The leaf concentrates of Vetiveria zizanioides were utilized as a characteristic wellspring of cell reinforcements and their impact on lipid oxidation hindrance was considered by utilizing Peroxide esteem estimation and free unsaturated fat estimation