The brain stem is formed by the medulla oblongata and the pons (Starkey, et al., 2011). b. Its main functions are to relay information to and from the central nervous system (CNS), and control the involuntary system of the body (Starkey, et al., 2011). 5. Occiput a.
Ambien is a non-benzodiazepine drug that acts as one by binding selectively to GABA receptors. Ambien (zolpidem) is a sedative, also called a hypnotic. Zolpidem affects chemicals in the brain that may be unbalanced in people with sleep problems insomnia). Ambien is used to treat insomnia. Nervous system side effects most frequently have included visual disturbances, ataxia, and dizziness.
f) The biogenic theory of depression in terms of our theoretical understandings of mental disorders was formed. i) The theory stated that the mood is determined in the brain by biogenic amines – complex chemicals who’s structure resembles that of ammonia. ii) Before antidepressants, amines were involved in the regulation of a variety of functions; from heart rate and stomach motility, to alertness and sleep. (1) Iproniazid and Imipramine concluded that amines regulated mood but it could not be proved. (a) The amine hypothesis could not support the effects of the drugs.
The adrenal medulla, which is in the autonomic nervous system, will then secrete, once action potential is reached, epinephrine (Adrenaline) into the blood. Epinephrine brings its effects to target receptors, which will in turn cause changes in the body. Adrenaline leads the Sympathetic Nervous System to become more prominent and inhibit the action of the Parasympathetic system in the body. Thus, the body focuses less on housekeeping and more on fighting or fleeing. It increases the amount of oxygen the lungs intake and the level of blood glucose.
When the both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglion direct to the same organ or gland the total function of the gland is carried by the input signals given by chain ganglia and the terminal ganglia. E.g. the sympathetic ganglion can increase the heart rate and the parasympathetic ganglion can decrease the heart rate. Terminal ganglia in the sympathetic nervous system receive impulses from the head, neck, thoracic and lumber regions. Terminal ganglia of the parasympathetic system receive impulses from the lower abdominal region as well as the pelvic cavity.
In contrast, the BIS is associated with the neurotransmitter Serotonin and brain structures that control memory. Serotonin is regarded by some researchers as a chemical that is responsible for maintaining mood balance, and that a deficit of serotonin leads to depression. The BIS is sensitive to threats of punishment and can be likened to a brake that stops a person from going too far too fast. “The BIS produces anxiety and inhibits ongoing behavior in the presence of novel stimuli, innate fear stimuli, and signals of non-reward or punishment” (O’Brien, Frick 1). The BIS is what we can rely on to tell us when we have had enough for our own
It aims to alleviate distress by modifying cognitive content and process, realigning thinking with reality. Ilardi & Craighead (1994) gave this article about the role of nonspecific treatment factors in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for depression. An analysis of relevant studies reveals that the majority of symptomatic improvement in CBT occurs prior to the formal introduction of cognitive restructuring techniques. Reviewed evidence supports a mediation role for the hopelessness construct in CBT. Two non specific factors, the treatment rationale and the assignment of homework, appear integral to early symptomatic improvement.
At a chemical synapse, an electrical signal (AP) is transformed into a chemical signal (neurotransmitter) and thereafter is (re)turned back into an electrical one (AP). Thus the signal can move across the synaptic cleft via or as a neurotransmitter before it is turned back into an electrical signal (AP) at the receptor cell. This conversion process not only assures the inter-neural conduction of signals, but also their modulation (change). Depending on what kind of neurotransmitter is released and then docks at its postsynaptic receptors, either an excitation or an inhibition will be produced. An inhibition results in a hyperpolarization.
The first step in the journey of muscle movement, is the motor neuron. The motor neuron provides Acetylcholine (ACh) which is crucial in muscle movement. Acetylcholine (ACh) is released from the synaptic terminals of the motor neuron. The ACh then travels across the synaptic cleft by way of diffusion. From the synaptic cleft, the ACh binds to the receptors located on the muscle fiber’s plasma membrane.
The biological explanation of the brain in regards to drug addiction is interesting. According to the textbook, "Studies have found convincing evidence that drugs such as alcohol, heroin, and cocaine act directly on the brain mechanisms that are responsible for reward and punishment." When one use drugs, the drug stimulates the areas of the brain that create the sensation of pleasure and suppress the pleasure of pain, as, a result, the user receives reinforcement to engage in further drug-taking behavior. The psychological explanation of drug abuse, "Focus on either personality disorders or the effects of social learning and reinforcement on drug-taking behaviors." The sociological explanation on drug abuse and the symbolic interactionist perspective overlap.
In Depression (major depression disorders) state that the side effects that you get from taking SSRIs may possibly include: nausea, nervousness, agitation or restlessness dizziness, drowsiness, insomnia, weight gain or loss, headache, dry mouth, vomiting, and diarrhea. (Staff) Another main type of antidepressants is Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) which are to ease depression by affecting chemical messengers used to communicate between brain cells. Like most antidepressants, MAOIs work by changing the levels of brain chemicals. An enzyme called monoamine oxidase is involved in removing the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine from the brain. MAOIs are sometimes used to treat conditions other than depression, such as Parkinson 's disease.
The neurons produce hormones that slide down the axons and end up in the posterior lobe. The posterior lobe is then responsible for storing the hormones made by the neurons of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This portal system consists of blood vessels that carry hormones of the hypothalamus to the anterior lobe. The anterior lobe then responds by making its own hormones.
DISCUSSION The response of the guinea pig ileum to agonist ACh was a proportional contraction of smooth muscle to the increase dosage shown in Figure 1 and Table 1. From figure 1, in lower concentrations of ACh in the presense of Atr, there was a lower dose response, suggesting Ach is no longer in a non-competitive environment. Both curves from the dose responses (Figure 1) reach 100% maximum response even in the presence of Atr, showing a rightward parallel shift, indicates the agonist efficacy was not affected by the presence of the competitive antagonist (Neal, 2009). The EC50¬¬ of ACh also increased in the presence of Atr, indicating ACh is acting as a competitive antagonist, thus showing that Atr reduced its potency of ACh. This occurs
Since opioids are also known to affect seizure activity as well, opioids are looked in how they can be modulated in order to decrease seizure activity. Within the dentate gyrus (DG), there are two opioid peptides, enkephalins and dynorphins, which both have effects on excitability, but with contrasting effects (11). The difference between these two peptides is that enkephalins bind to delta- and mu- opioid receptors (DORs and MORs) whereas dynorphins bind to kappa-opioid receptors (KORs). However, unlike galanin receptors, opioid receptors can be activated by exogenous opiate drugs, which means that overdose can be possible because it is not reliant on an endogenous ligand. For example, the MOR agonist morphine can bind which means that a ligand can be introduced and not well regulated by the body, leading to overdose (11).