Neurotransmission In Psychology

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Q1. Explain the effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour.

This essay will explain you what are neurotransmitters and how they affect behavior, incorporated with relevant studies.

One of the most important discoveries that have influenced psychology is the role of neurotransmitters, which affect the behviour, emotions and thoughts. To understand its effect we need to understand the physiology or the method of neurotransmission which causes are behavior.

To understand neurotransmission we need to understand the nerve cells or neurons, which are the basic units of carrying messages to the brain and across the body. The neurons send electrochemical messages to the brain, which help the people to respond to the environment and the internal
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These neurotransmitters are stored in the terminal bulbs of the neurons. Once the electrical impulse reaches the terminal bulb these neurotransmitters are released and then reach the receptor sites of the post-synaptic neuron. Once the message is carried forward the either the neurotransmitters are broken down or reabsorbed this is known as reuptake.

There are various neurotransmitters present in our body some of which are-
1. Serotonin
2. Acetylcholine
3. Norepinephrine
4. Dopamine

Several studies have been undertaken to demonstrate the effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour. In this essay the function and supporting studies of the neurotransmitters Serotonin and Acetylcholine will be explained.

Serotonin

It is associated with the regulation of sleep, memory, learning, appetite and mood (key factor in mood balance).
Low serotonin levels can lead to depression.
Increasing the amount of Serotonin in the brain helps reducing depression and improving mood.
Serotonin based medication are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors which are used to reduce the symptoms of
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Ach acts in the areas of the brain associated with motivation, attention and arousal.

Aim of this study was to determine role of neurotransmitter acetylcholine on memory formation. Rats were trained to go through maze and get to the end where they received food. After rats were able to do this, he injected: Scopolamine in the first group, which blocks acetylcholine receptor sites.
Physostigmine in the second group, which blocks production of cholinesterase, which causes rapid reabsorption of Ach.
The third group, which was control group, was not injected.
It was found that rats injected with Scopolamine –were slower at finding way round maze and made more errors than control or Physostigmine group. Rats injected with Physostigmine ran faster compared to both groups and made fewer wrong turns. Thus, this study shows that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine affects the human behaviour of memory causing an increase in memory functions with higher amounts of Ach compared to lower levels of Ach, which decreases memory

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