Choice "A" is not the best answer. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction and also a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system. Acetylcholine is not affected by risperidone, nor is it related to acute mania.
Chemical dependency is a complex topic that includes a lot of information when it is being learned or spoken about. As a speaker it is important to deliver a topic that is very complex with simplicity and clarity. When speaking about this topic, defining the terminologies that is associated with the topic before going in depths will help the audience to follow along. This speech includes three main topics followed by subtopics. The main topics of this speech are as follow; Important Terminology, The hormones of the brain and its functions in relation to the drugs that are involved with these hormones, and the treatments and programs that patients undergo.
It is well known that for year’s physicians have prescribed natural and chemical medications to treat many psychological disabilities. Since the 1950’s, depression ‘a psychological ailment,’ have been studied many times over and continues to be debated and studied. There are numerous ways to treat mental disorders. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) medications and natural therapies are used to treat the condition of depression. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are a form of drugs developed by medical and pharmaceutical companies, with the goal of these antidepressant drugs are to target specific brain functions without affecting other cognitive skills and to reduce
Cocaine is a drug, it is produced from a coca plant, which is native to Bolivia and Peru. Cocaine can enter one’s body, by either injecting it with a needle or snorting it through the nose. I will be discussing, how this stimulant drug affects the neurotransmitters, physiological, and psychological state of one’s body.
MDD is a mood disorder in which one would persistently feel sad and unable to find pleasure in formerly enjoyed activities (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It affects patients’ physical condition, day-to-day functioning, and quality of life (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). According to American Psychiatric Association (as cited in Scrandis & Watt, 2013), diagnosis of MDD is made when patients present with depressed mood or absence of interest in daily activities for a minimum of two weeks and at least five other symptoms as explained in Appendix C, as well as alterations in prior functioning. MDD is considered a chronic illness and therefore require certain amount of time for treatment (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
Before antidepressants, amines were involved in the regulation of a variety of functions; from heart rate and stomach motility, to alertness and sleep.
Cocaine is produced in the fields of South America. Bolivia, Peru and Colombia are top coca leaf producing countries. Colombia is the world’s top coca leaf processor, with more processing taking place in Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela and Argentina. From South America, shipments move north, coming into the US by small plane, truck, car or boat. Along the US-Mexico border, Mexican drug cartels are largely responsible for moving the drugs, but in large Eastern cities, a wide variety of ethnic groups transport these drugs. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. Any substance that affects the brain has an effect on mental health. In this cocaine is no different from many other recreational drugs. According
In modern psychology there exist many different psychological approaches studying human behavior with each one focusing on specific aspects to study, employing differing methodologies. Two major approaches (perspectives) are the psychodynamic and behavioral perspectives. Both perspectives attempt to decipher human behavior, but they examine it from quite different views. The behavioral perspective explicitly considers psychology as a science and employs scientific and objective methods of investigation. It assumes that behavior, good or bad, is learned and the environment is the primary factor affecting learning. It focuses on events that can be observed rather than emotions and strongly associates response to specific stimulus (Hooley,
The experiment found that neither sex was higher in prevalence of anxiety temperament than the other. In addition, the prevalence of anxiety temperament seemed to decrease with age. It was also determined that brain volume was more heritable than glucose metabolism but it still did not have any significance to the expression of anxiety temperament at early ages. However, there was significant heritability found of glucose metabolism across the brain in relation to anxiety temperament. There were many regions of the brain that showed correlation between anxiety temperament and metabolism (when voxelwise robust regressions were performed) such as the orbital frontal, anterior insular cortices, amygdala, anterior hippocampus, BST, and midbrain regions. However, there was 26% heritability in the amygdala, 57% in the BST, and 53% in the hippocampus. The scientists went through many processes to help narrow down the regions and they established that the main regions that have genetic correlations are portions of the OFC/AI, extended amygdala, and brainstem. The other regions have different roles in this process but the previous three seemed most involved. Now that the tripartite prefrontal-limbic-midbrain circuit and its functions are known it will be of great resource to future investigations and studies. (Fox,
In the case study, the patient is diagnosed with depression when he goes to his GP nine months after his daughter’s death. Depression is a mood disorder, and according to the DSM-IV (1), a ‘major depressive episode’ is when an individual experiences at least two weeks of a depressed mood or anhedonia, with children and teenagers possibly experiencing irritability as opposed to sadness. In addition, at least four more symptoms must be present almost all day, every day, for a minimum of 2 weeks. Furthermore, the symptom(s) must be new or much worse than they had been before the depressive episode.
The episode “Who is in Control?” addresses the idea that our brain secretly controls what we do without our awareness. When we wake up, we may have many things going through our brain and think that we are aware and in control of many things but in reality our brain controls countless other things that we are unaware of. If a task is performed long enough then neuronal circuits are hardwired in the brain that allow us to perform tasks even while unconscious. As a result, skills become unconscious and hidden. For some people, performing tasks unconsciously results in better results than utilizing the conscious mind. An example mentioned was a rock climber who claimed that if he is conscious of his
Brain is one complex organ which processes tons of information every second. It has a wide network of neurons, the brain cells which transmit information throughout the brain. Information is transferred through chemicals called neurotransmitters. It has been found that neurotransmitters like Dopamine, Serotonin and Norepinephine influence one’s moods and emotions. Dopamine also called the feel good chemical gives you a happy-elated feeling when released. Serotonin is another neurotransmitter associated with regeneration of brain cells, which eases depression. Also Norepinephine helps moderating your
American Psychiatric Association, A.M. (2000). Practice guideline the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (revision). Am. J. Psychiatry 157, 1–45.
They also believe that the two factors that can lead to depresion are the neurologic argument and the genetic argument. We know that the brain functions by sending chemical messages from neurons to neurons using neurotransmitters such as Serotonin ( which release a chemical that helps a person to be calm) and Noradrenaline ( body's initial stress response) . The lack of this chemical messages, according to biological approach, is one of the reasons that lead a person to depression. The cure for the depression, according to the biological approach, is the use of chemical medicines such as Prozac (works by increasing the availability of the mood chemical serotonin) and Effexor (targets serotonin and
In relation to the findings of environmental influences and its effect on human behavior, this essay will be discussing two effects of the environment on physiological processes, provided with a variety of hypotheses and supported by research studies that have investigated these two effects. It has been argued that aspects in a surrounding environment can affect the physiological processes of the human brain such as neurotransmitters and hormones, in which the relationship between the environment and physiology is stated to be bidirectional—in this case, environmental quality can alter the condition of the cerebral cortex, which influences one’s behavior and experiences.