Sources Of Water Pollution Essay

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Water pollution refers to the changes in the physical, biological, chemical or thermal conditions of water body which harmfully disrupts the balance of ecosystem. Water pollution results when overwhelming amount of waste coming from different sources of pollutants such as effluent, litter, refuse sewage or contaminated runoff could no longer be accommodated by the natural ecosystem (WRC, 2000). The main sources of water pollution are agricultural activities, commercial and industrial discharges, domestic and municipal wastewater (Rashid, 2012).
First of all, the agricultural intensification has been the origin of several harmful effects on the environment even if it allows covering the food needs of the population. The use of fertilizers and
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(1997) concluded that several facilities were discharging high levels of metals in Nyabugogo Rivers. He also noted that the concentration of some total metals were quite close to drinking water standards of 0.015mg/l. Oguttu et al. (1998) supported that industrial activities release an important number of pollutants including nutrients and heavy metals such as toxic chromium (VI) into rivers. At last, Sekomo et al.(2010) reporting on the fate of heavy metals in urban natural wetland, in a study carried out in Nyabugogo swamp, showed that not only water bodies are endangered by pollutants from industrial discharges but also a abnormal accumulation of heavy metals was found in sediments, plants and animals located in industrial zone of the wetland.
Thirdly, there is significant relationship between Municipal Wastewater discharges and water pollution. The main pollutants found in domestic effluents are Pathogens, suspended solids, salts and oxygen demanding material (Marvet &Grant, 2011). In addition, the discharge of untreated domestic wastewater effluents to natural environment may lead to high load of total nitrogen and total phosphorus (Umuhoza,

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