The Effects Of Water Pollution

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Water pollution refers to the changes in the physical, biological, chemical or thermal conditions of water body which harmfully disrupts the balance of ecosystem. Water pollution results when overwhelming amount of waste coming from different sources of pollutants such as effluent, litter, refuse sewage or contaminated runoff could no longer be accommodated by the natural ecosystem (WRC, 2000). The main sources of water pollution are agricultural activities, commercial and industrial discharges, domestic and municipal wastewater (Rashid, 2012). First of all, the agricultural intensification has been the origin of several harmful effects on the environment even if it allows covering the food needs of the population. The use of fertilizers and pesticides is considered to be the potential source of water pollution (FAO, 1978). Thus, nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P, are the two elements constituting fertilizers that contribute to water pollution when are present in large amount (Chaney, 1990). The runoff of these nutrients, especially phosphorus, leads to eutrophication of surface water. Eutropication refers to the nutrient enrichment of water body such as ponds, pools, lagoons, lakes and rivers. The environmental problems related to eutrophication are degradation of ecosystems, excess growth of algae leading to deoxygenation of water and fish kill and taste and odour in public water supply. Consequently, a limit of 10mg/l NO3- guideline in drinking water is established to

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