To begin with, “the basic phonemic span of AAVE is much the same as in other varieties in English” (Edwards 2008, p. 183) AAVE shares phonological features with other varieties of English, though some might be more frequent in AAVE or realized in another way. According to Labov (Bailey & Thomas 1998, p. 93), AAVE did not participate in the Northern City Chain Shift nor the Southern Shift. Both describe certain phonological changes that affect the speech of white speakers in their respected areas, for example tensing or lowering
A few lakes and river names comes from the Celts; -Avon and –Thame are examples of ending names. The Romans settled in Britain and built fortresses and houses of course. They also built the famous 117 kilometeres long Hadrians’ wall to protect their civilazation. The romans didn’t really put much influence in the English language either, but they did ‘’give’’ English some words. They also had more influence on English than the Celts.
Word Order in Arabic Language 2.8.1. Sentence with a Verb The basic sentence in Arabic contains a verb, where a sentence does not require a verb for it and to make sense, a semantically light verb is inserted. The most common word order in a sentence with a verb is Verb-Subject –Object (V+S+O). However, when an adverb or adverbial phrase (a word or phrase describing the place, manner or time of occurrence of the main event) occurs the adverbial phrase (A) may occur before the verb to give Adverb –Verb-Subject. (A+V+S), less commonly between the verb and the subject to give Verb-Adverb-Subject (V+A+S), or after the subject to give Verb –Subject –Adverb (VSA) word orders.
In Middle English, an ‘-e’ or ‘-en’ was added at the end of verbs to express either plurals or past particles. In Caxton’s text, this is also noticeable in the verbs: passe (pass) and lerne (learn). Not only have verbs and nouns suffered from inflection developments, articles and adjectives have gone through quite a change as well from
American Sign Language borrows from other languages, mainly English, as many languages do. Thus, some of its grammar shows similarities to American English. The most common sentence structure used in ASL is the “topic-comment” structure, which requires the speaker/signer to reveal their purpose and then add their commentary. While this is present in English, it is with less frequency, as the English language typically requires more sentence variation. However, some grammatical structuring differs from that of American English.
The Predicator is realized by the verbal group and it is non-finite. Its function is to specify the voice (active or passive) and the process. The Complement is an element that has the potential of being subject, but is not. It is typically realized by a nominal group. The Adjunct is an element that has not got the potential of being as a subject.
This difference is only because of modification of long vowels. Example: The word Stan is the same word as Modern English stone, but the vowel is different which has changed their pronunciation. VOCABULARY: The vocabulary of Old English is completely different from the vocabulary of Modern English. Its all vocabulary was completely Germanic. It had some word of Celtic origin too.
The third stage is codification which is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language codifying a language could be different from case to another and it depend on the stage of standardization that exists, it means to develop a writing system, pronunciation, syntax, set up official rules of grammar, orthography and vocabulary as well as publishing grammar books and dictionaries. The codification of English took its place by the 16th century , by public ate dictionaries and grammar books , most of them aims to teach the new English language to rural squires and to the welsh especially after the act of union between England and Walsh in 1536 . By the 16th and 17th century the writers start to write a Standard English codification affected the spoken form of the standard language. for example , received pronunciation " RB " was codified by the influence of education , especially in the 19th century public schools , then from the early 20th century by radio , cinema , and television (BBC English) . The codification of pronunciation stage started in the end of the 18th century, when elocutionists like Thomas Sheridan and John Walker produced understandable guides to correct pronunciation in the form of pronouncing dictionaries.