The Africans who were enslaved were generally prisoners of war or captives from slave raids. “As the demand for slaves grew, so did the practice of systematic slave raiding, which increased in scope and efficiency with the introduction of firearms to Africa in the 17th century. By the 18th century, most African slaves were acquired through slave raids, which penetrated farther and farther inland.” Those unlucky enough to be captured in certain invasions were forced to march certain paths, sometimes for a few hundred miles, to markets on the coast to be traded for simple materials in return. From the mid-fifteenth to the late-nineteenth century, European and American slave sellers obtained roughly 12
David Childress Period 4 11/11/15 Nash Reading Review Nash’s essay examines the development of commercial slavery in the 15th century starting in Africa up until the 19th century in America. He discusses the real way that slave trade happened that is contrary to popular belief. He also analyzes the causes and effects that led to slavery’s commercialization and development. One cause-and-effect arguments Nash makes about slavery's development is as the need for labor increased because of agricultural development, the need for slaves also increased. Expansion of slave trade was caused by the high demand for cash crops like tobacco and sugar.
Before the European settlers arrived in America even the Native Americans had their own slaves. Slavery was a very argumentative issue in America and, in fact, was the root cause of both the Haitian revolution and the American Civil War. The importation of slaves to Europe began when the Portuguese Crown gave up its monopoly of the slave trade in Europe leading to private ownership of slaves. This caused the European settlers, especially the Portuguese, to bring more slaves to the Americas directly from Africa. The Spanish were the first to use African slaves in the New World on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola with the first African slaves arriving in Hispaniola in 1501.
They soon coerced the natives into working on sugar and tobacco plantations as slaves—the conditions were horrendous and life was short and brutal. Because European explorers brought along their native diseases (such as smallpox and tuberculosis), the native population was soon dramatically diminished. This meant that Caribbean plantation owners had to import in African slaves. This rejuvenated the African slave trade, which became an essential part of the global economy. Russian serfdom, however,
Colonists began to build a settlement in North America after gaining their independence from Great Britain. Slavery in North America began when African slaves were brought to Jamestown in order to aid in the production of crops that would later fuel the economic establishment of North America. The African Slave trade gained prominence in the seventeenth century when African American slaves began to replace the bulk of indentured servants. Eventually slaves and their decedents made up majority of the population in some states. In fact, “New World plantation agriculture came to depend on the labor of enslaved workers…” (Created Equal 80).
Before the 1600s no more than approximately 10,000 Africans were transported, “ in the 17th century, however, demand for slave labour rose sharply with the growth of sugar plantations in the Caribbean and tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region in North America” (Lewis 1). To outlaw this slave trade, nations implemented are variety of slave laws. One being a system of treaties constructed by the British in the early nineteenth century to “suppress both the supply of and the demand for slaves, as well as to deal with third parties involved in the trade”(Keene 2). This treaty system was enforced by
There, labour was needed and labour was available but in different places. The need for labour sprang from the inherent demographic difference between the Americas and South Asia, from the impact of European expansion and from the specific labor tasks that the colonists required. The Atlantic slave trade paid much attention to the role of the slave trade in British North America and West Indian colonies. According to Kenneth Morgan (2007: 18) “the transatlantic slave trade was an important business enterprise within the British Empire for nearly a century and a half, from the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660 until the trade was abolished in 1807”. In this period the slave trade and its capital turnover made a substantial contribution to the economic development of the British Empire.
Not all African societies were equally affected, but countries such as Angola and Senegal suffered heavily (SAHO, s.a.). The most important consequences of the Atlantic slave trade were demographic, economic, and political (SAHO, s.a.). There can be no doubt that the Atlantic slave trade greatly retarded African demographic development, a fact that was to have lasting consequences for the history of the continent (SAHO, s.a.). At best, African populations remained stagnant (SAHO, s.a.). The export of the most economically active men and women led to the disintegration of entire societies (SAHO, s.a.).
When the Revolution took a radical turn in 1792, the French Republic was formed. Finally, in 1799, after the end of the Reign of Terror in which the monarchy and its allies were executed, the French Revolution came to an end, with Napoleon gaining power over France. Overall, the Haitian Revolution is a contrast to the French Revolution because the main reasons and goals of the people were different. In Haiti, the news of American Independence motivated slaves to unite and fight for equality from European nations. Meanwhile in France, the radicals hoped that by overthrowing the monarchy, a new assembly would be created and France would become a republic.
Runaway slaves were very common, slaves killing slave masters; and slavery as an established legitimate institution was cracking at its base. White people realized that most black people and mulattoes would prefer to return to their African motherland than to live in servitude. Thus in 1821 the American Colonization Society bought a large piece of land (43,000 sq. miles, almost half the entire new country) in the west coast of Africa "Cape Mesurado". The site then was called Grain Coast by the Portuguese because of its valuable crop called "Pepper."
However, by 1444, 235 Africans had been brought back to Portugal.1 They were used as slaves. Soon enough, the Portuguese realized they could buy and trade for slaves, instead of capturing them. It was an easier, more justified process. By the early 17th century, Portugal had a major role in trading enslaved Africans. In addition to trading with Africa, Portugal also traded with the Spanish.
African Influence in Brazilian Music Without the African influence Brazilian music would not be what it is today. Brazil is the largest county in South America and it is also the largest economy in Latin America. The Portuguese settled in Brazil in 1549, in the city of Salvador. A small town right of the coast and the center of the Slave trade. Like the native Brazilians the Africans became the product of slavery to the Portuguese people.