The main topic of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics is eudaimonia, i.e. happiness in the “living well” or “flourishing” sense (terms I will be using interchangeably). In this paper, I will present Aristotle’s view on the role of external goods and fortune for the achievement of happiness. I will argue that he considers them a prerequisite for virtue. Their contribution to happiness is indirect, via the way they affect how we can engage in rational activity according to the relevant virtues.
2015 ). Not all personal values, however, drive us to act prosocially. Based on Schwartz’s (2010) research on personal values, Paciello et al. (2013a) identified two main sets of opposite personal values related to engagement in prosocial behavior, namely self-transcendent and self-enhancement ones. While self-transcendent values are characterized by praising welfare and acceptance, and as such are positively correlated with propensity to help, self-enhancement ones are correlated to seeking power and achievement, and therefore are negatively correlated to helping behavior (Schwartz, 2010; Paciello et al., 2013a; Boer & Fischer, 2013).
Utilitarianism is a popular type of consequentialism, rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism. Utilitarians think that happiness is the measure to judge the consequences, whether the action is right or wrong depends almost entirely on the good or bad consequences. Rule utilitarianism argues that if you obey the rules it will benefit the larger number of sentinel beings. more absolutist then relative, based on past experience. Rules generally promote the greater good, it is intended to guide us to make the best decisions for what needs to be done.
Two ethical theories in this course which I have chosen to discuss comprehensively are utilitarianism and Kantian moral theory. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory whose principal architects were Jeremy Bentham(1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). It derives it 's name from utility, which means usefulness.The utilitarian says that an act is right (moral) if it is useful in “bringing about a desirable or good end." It has been more characteristically stated, however, as "Everyone should perform that act or follow that moral rule that will bring about the greatest good (or happiness) for everyone concerned. (Thiroux & Krasemann, 2009)The reason for mentioning both acting and following rules is that utilitarianism generally is found in two main forms: Act Utilitarian and Rule utilitarian.
Mill states that, “it is by no means an indispensable condition to the acceptance of the utilitarian standard; for that standard is not the agent’s own greatest happiness, but the greatest happiness of altogether” (Mill Chapter 2,7). Producing the greatest amount of happiness in the greatest number of people is Mill’s qualitative measurement on an account of utility. This shows that utility is intrinsically good for everyone. Mill argues in favor of the harm principle. The harm principle states that the only viable justification an individual has for interference with someone else’s individual liberty is to stop harm to others.
Utilitarianism addresses problems in a way that it will maximize the overall good. It supports the greatest happiness principle which states that actions are right if they tend to promote happiness and wrong if it promotes the opposite of happiness. This theory is not based on making the most money as it may appear at first, but utilitarianism has much more to offer to our society as it demonstrates and shows full awareness that sponsoring feelings or sentiments do matter. Sustainable development can be viewed in three perspectives; environmental, social, and economic welfare. From the ecological perspective; if we are to look for a better future for the coming generations, we have to consider the environment and its betterment for everyone not from the perspective of developed and developing countries.
Utilitarianism is a doctrine that an action is right if it promotes happiness. Like consequentialist, Utilitarian’s judge the morality of an action based on its consequences. The action that produces the best consequences is the right action. The difference between consequentialism and utilitarianism is that utilitarian’s focus on engaging in acts that produce the best consequences for the greatest number of people. This theory was developed by Jeremy Bentham and subsequently John Stuart mill.
What exactly is happiness and how does one go about spreading happiness it to others? A man by the name of John Stuart Mill seems to be able to give us some answers to these questions. Mill starts our inquiring journey with defining what utilitarianism stands for. In short he states that it is the construction of utility, which claims that the actions that stimulate happiness in is morally fit and vice versa to be unfit. Happiness is something that we want for itself, it is considered to be the ‘ultimate end’.
Traditional utilitarianism is defined as an action that is right if and only if, the sum total of utilities produced is more than any other utilities produced by another act the agent could have performed in its place; this is from an ethical point of view. Traditional Utilitarianism was generally considered to be founded by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Utilitarian principles assumes that we can measure and add together the quantities of benefits made by a certain action and then measure and subtract from those benefits the quantities of harm the action will produce. Utilitarian principles states that the right act in a given situation is the one that produces the greatest utilities than another act. The act will only be right if it produces the most utility for all the persons affected by the action, including the person who performed the act.
In Utilitarianism Mill delineates his teleological principle of utility. This essay wishes to examine Mill’s moral theory of Utilitarianism through the Greatest Happiness Principle and his two arguments that pleasure should qualitative instead of quantitative and endowed towards mental instead of physical pleasure. Additionally the shortcoming of his theory will be noted: The erosion of human rights and our rational choice to choose suitable pleasure being undermined. The Greatest Happiness Principle (utility) founds Mill’s moral theory as it divides right from wrong behaviour, detonating that correct behaviour promotes happiness and incorrect creates unhappiness (Mill, 1863, p. 10). Happiness means pleasure without the presence of pain and unhappiness is the promotion of pain and deprivation of pleasure.