Some people may not know that racial profiling has been a problem in the United States. Often people think racial profiling most likely began in the 1990’s because of the news reports of African Americans being profiled. For example, “Driving while black”. According to the West Encyclopedia, "The most common form of racial profiling occurs when police stop, question, and search African American, Hispanic American, or members of other racial minorities disproportionately based solely on the individuals ' race or ethnicity". Racial profiling often happens because some police officers target people based on their
As a result police officers have become a major key in the arrests of many people of color. Alexander explains how police will stop and search people of color who are “suspected” of containing drugs or who look “suspicions.” Police officers are actually encouraged in their training to use racial profiling and when a person files a complaint the Courts always take the side of the police officer. As stated by Alexander, “The dirty little secret of policing is that the Supreme Court has actually granted the police license to discriminate” (130). Many would argue that police officers and the justice system are fair and that they don’t discriminate and that one does have a fair trial in court from all the lies the media and television shows feeds the people about the justice system and police force. However this is far from the truth, as Alexander explains in her book, most of the people being stopped and searched are people of color and a person of color is more likely to get stopped by police then a white person.
How would you think someone felt if they were stopped by officers based on their looks? Racial profiling has been a problem for a long time. Racial profiling is when a law enforcement official believes someone committed an offense based on that person 's ethnicity, race, religion and national origin. A form of policing that is usually used in law enforcement is the Terry Stop or the Stop-question and frisk method. This is a method where people are stopped and suspected of doing a crime.
2005, An Analysis of the NYPD 's stop and frisk policy in the context of the claim of racial bias by Andrew Gelman, Jeffrey Fagan, Alex Kiss is about the NYPD records of indicated that they were stopping black and Hispanics more often that they were stopping whites. Minorities are stopped twice as often for violent crimes and a weapons offense. Lower "hit rates" for non-whites is suggested as the targeting of minorities while another suggests dynamics of racial stereotyping and a more passive form of racial preference. Racial Incongruity stops in high rates of minority stop in predominantly white precincts. Being out of place is often a reason for suspicion.
MacDonald makes a lot of good points about how the politicization of criminal justice can hurt the entire field. I do not agree that racial profiling does not exist, but I do agree that political witch hunts and fishing expeditions are likely to punish good officers and limit their ability to do their jobs, while failing to ensure that minorities are treated equally. An unfortunate but valid point that she offers is that the disproportionate amount of minorities involved in incarceration does not indicate racial profiling, but just that more minorities are committing crimes (Macdonald, 2001). I’d like to say that I’m well aware that crime is a response to poverty, not ethnicity. The disproportionate amount of minorities below the poverty line
Racial profiling by law enforcement is commonly defined as “a practice that targets people for suspicion of crime based on their race, ethnicity, religion or national origin” (“Racial Profiling”). Racial profiling can be done because of stereotypes like “Blacks and Hispanics are more prone to crime” (Niller). However, that doesn’t mean that is alright for officers to “stop and search people” (“The Problem”) or shoot them because they look agitated. The power to stop and search is given by the fourth amendment requires that the police have a “reasonable suspicion that a crime has been, is being, or is about to be committed before stopping a suspect. If the police reasonably suspect the person is armed and dangerous, they may conduct a frisk, a quick pat-down of the person’s outer clothing” (“reasonable suspicion”).
However, the race is considered a salient predictors of the attitudes towards the police institutions. The blacks are likely to be affected than the whites because of race imbalance. Less is known about the views of other races though existing studies show that race is something that is significant in explaining police brutality. As a fact, racial differences is something that is common in the relations of the citizens with the police (Chaney and Robertson 110). In explaining the accounts for the racial differences, the paper will utilize the group-position model of race relations.
Roman Mendez CRJ 1113-001 @01505193 I. Describe racial profiling and racially biased policing Racial profiling is a prominent problem in America in general. No individual goes unjudged in todays society. The US department of Justice claims "Issues surrounding race in America, and, specifically, racial profiling have been highly visible and volatile." (Bias-Based Policing, n.d) Racial profiling is defined as "Creating a profile about the kinds of people who commit certain types of crimes" by the National Institute of Justice.
Even before our nation’s founding, people of color have been discriminated. Decades pass and the criminal justice system is still “racist” labeling people of color as criminal, meaning black equal criminals therefore is fine to discriminate people of color just because they’re criminals. In “The New Jim Crow” the system targets black men because they are associated with crime, meaning crime stands in for race. In the other hand, As Heather Mac Donald writes in her book “The War on Cops”, “The criminal-justice system does treat individual suspects and criminals equally, they concede. But the problem is how society defines crime and criminals” (154).
233). Studies from Peak et al. (2010) further indicate that bias base policing occurs mainly towards minorities and is racially insensitive (p. 233). Similar studies from Pollock (2014) revealed that men of color express more “distrust in the police because they fear force may be used on them due to their ethnicity and color” (p. 138). The notion previously stated by Pollock (2014) raised many questions about police ethics and morals, powers of discretion and pre-conceived discrimination, and prejudices that society has bestowed on individuals of minority background.
"It has been reported that some police officers stop motorists of certain racial or ethnic groups because the officers believe that these groups are more likely than others to commit certain types of crimes. Do you believe that this practice, known as "racial profiling," is widespread or not?" What happened to Michael Brown Jr. in Ferguson, Missouri has resonated across the country with African Americans because all of us feel that it could have easily happened to anyone of us. Every incident involving a police officer and African male could’ve been avoided if the officers wanted them to. In Eric Garner’s case, for example, police targeted him for the petty crime of selling loose cigarettes, the types of crimes black people are targeted for
Other examples of common examples racial profiling are people who cross the street when they see a person of another race walking toward them, or a black student being expelled from school for an offense that typically carries a lesser punishment for a white student. A phrase used to describe racial profiling is “driving while black.” This comes from African Americans complaining that they are pulled over by police officers for no reason other than the color of their skin (Racial Profiling). Native Americans use the phrase “driving while Indian” to describe police stops and searches that have no merit. Caucasian individuals also experience the effects of racial profiling, especially when they are in interracial relationships or with people of different races. For example, a white
Not all trials are impeccable. The issue of racial disparity has been a serious problem of the United States. Especially in the criminal justice system category. For in criminal justice system today racial inequality is increasing not receding. This is because today, our justice system remotes the idea of fair trials and discriminate many African Americans and other minorities as well without realizing it.
While police in America often have a difficult and thankless job, some of them are guilty of racial profiling. Therefore certain ethnic groups including African-Americans fell targeted and as the result, some resort to protest using social media; other ethnic groups including whites are often negatively engaged with the police, yet social media fails to report this. Finally the role of social media has expended and become more important in policing our society.
Also, “The poisonous relationship between black men and police forces is the key to why we never really get past race.”(McWhorter) Past relationships between blacks and law enforcement are still the same today, poisonous and discriminatory. This further illustrates how the War on Drugs is affected black lives, stating how it is causing violence between blacks and police. All of this demonstrates how we are still paying the bill, because there is still a War on Drugs going on, which affects the relations between blacks and the