from Arabia. By 800 C.E. the West African Soninke people created the Ghanaian empire and controlled the Senegal and Upper Niger Rivers. But with the Ghana empire other smaller communities started to appear and a large empire known as the Mali empire became powerful after the fall of the Ghana empire in the eleventh century C.E. That was when the Mali empire converted into western Sudan to Islam and developed the city of Timbuktu and was the center of trade,
against the Etruscans. By this treaty Rome recognized the Mediterranean as Carthage 's sphere of influence, and Carthage even claimed a Roman could not wash his hands in the sea without its permission (The flow of History, n. d.). Carthage was originally a colony of Tyre, and had come to be the capital of great commercial empire on the northern coast of Africa. Tradition holds that Phoenicians settlers from Mediterranean port of Tyre founded the city of Carthage on the northern coast of Africa around 814 B.C (History.com, 2017) under Queen Dido who was driven from Tyre and landed in Africa. However, to trace how Carthage became almost the equal of Rome showing the strength of both and how this conflict led to Rome becoming a naval power, it is important to give the background of each in their basis of power and strength.
Case Study: The Black-White Relation in Postcolonial Era: How do Westerners view and treat African? The rise of the West initially started from the Great Voyage Age because maritime trade prompted the primitive accumulation of capital, in other words, the growth of wealth. Subsequently, the Industrial Revolution further widened the gap between the West and other areas, as a consequence, the former’s hegemony has lasted for several centuries and is still evident today. In contrast, economic underdevelopment and political instability made the vast majority of nations in non-Western world(African, Asia and Latin America) markedly laid behind the West, who gradually came to be the West’s colonies. That the empire on which the sun never sets in 19th century, the British Empire, particularly illustrated the glory of the Western imperialism and colonized people’s submission.
The Islam took over almost the whole Mediterranean, afterwards European frustration with the East led them to the Western explorations of the New World. Delanty says that the Atlantic expansion greatly strengthened the idea of the West and the European1. Only then around the fourteenth century, the game turns against Orient, and it enters into a spiral from which it has not
Vasco da Gama, born in Portugal, was a prominent Portuguese explorer during his lifetime spanning the late 1460s to early 1500s (Romey). Da Gama voyaged around Europe and Africa, eventually becoming the first European to reach India by sea (Gibbens). After successfully completing the 24,000-mile journey in 1498, da Gama was instructed by Portuguese king Manuel I to return to India to harass the Muslim shipping industry that had monopolized the spice trade. Da Gama took a fleet of 20 ships, and among them was Esmeralda. This ship was captained by da Gama's uncle, Vincent Sodré, and was one of five ships left behind in India to protect Portuguese factories.
If you analyse the whole human history on this planet from a World Politics-economics point of view, you will be terribly surprised to find that it is only and only about the Indian Ocean, access to the rich Indian Ocean trade! All eyes are set onto that “Land of Waters” which keeps the economies of the world thriving, kicking and moving for over thousands of years. The Europeans were fascinated by and large by the Indian Ocean trade in the earlier centuries, whereas the natives of the countries India and China have woke up yet again after a long slumber to this attractive reality. These waters actually breathe trade and commerce, transport majority of resources utilised by the world, the transit from where the oil flows, gas flows and resources flow and is and has been the
At first, the area of the Pirate Coast was known as the Coast of Oman. It included the southern shores of the Gulf. The ruling families and principal cities were the following: Fujairah (Al Sharqi), Abu Dhabi (Al Nahyan), Ras al Khaimah (Al Qawasim), Dubai (Al Maktoum), Sharjah (Al Qawasim), Ajman (Al Nuaimi), and Umm Al-Qawain (Al Mualla). In the late eighteenth century, the emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai were named ‘the Pirate Coast’ because the Al Qawasim tribe attacked their ships. The history of the Pirate Coast is debatable as Arab system was supposed to be related to piracy and extortion (“Country Profile: The United Arab Emirates,”
Strategically and economically one of the most important waterways in the world is the Suez Canal which is located in Egypt, and connects Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the port of Suez on the Red Sea. The Suez Canal provides an essentially direct route for transport of goods between Asia and Europe. The Suez Canal carries about 2.5 percent of world oil output. Possible closure of the Suez Canal would divert oil tankers around the southern tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, adding approximately 6,000 miles to transit, increasing both costs and shipping time. From 1967 until 1975, Egypt government kept the canal closed in response to Israel’s seizure of Arab territory (Six Day War), forcing tankers to travel around the Cape of Good Hope.
Furthermore, the cornerstone of his reign was rooted in social ethics as paternalism was extended to the members of his society (Thapar, 2006). The Gupta Era was a very significant time in India as was characterized as the Golden Age in which the country prospered during the years 391 CE to 605 CE. However, by the sixth century the prosperity reached an all-time low, with disappearing cities in the subcontinent. By the thirteenth century the consolidation of the Delhi sultanate created new cities and the Islamic dominance. During the seventh century the Islamic trade spread to the Indus Valley from the Middle East setting up political and economic systems in Indian
There was also a Muslim trading post in Canton as early as 8th century. The coastline of Malaya was multicultural where traders from Malabar, Arabia and Africa lived and interacted with the native Malay population and Chinese mandarins. In the year 1390, there was a prince, named Parameswara who lived off piracy for almost ten years on the west coast of Malaya with a thousand of young man that loyal to him as his followers. He was forced to flee from his homeland named Java. At that time, Siam (now Siam is called Thailand) was the emperial power in the area.