Though Calvin agreed with Luther in some respects, they had their differences. But before comparing him to Luther, one must look at the foundational beliefs of Calvin’s teachings. His teachings are perhaps best summarized by debaters following his death. Calvin’s fundamental beliefs, as defined by these debaters, follow the acronym TULIP. First, Calvin argues that man is doomed with total depravity because of the original sin committed by Adam and Eve.
Seeing that part of Him was separated, He sent Jesus Christ to die for our sins to redeem the relationship that once was. Jesus Christ is a man who has baffled and transformed the new age with his life and legacy. The question arose if He is just a man? Many speculated that He was just a prophet who was profoundly inspired with scriptural revelation. The truth is that He actually is the Son of God and everything he did reflected that of the Father, the
Apess and Petalesharo are Native American were Native American authors whose style, tone and argument are very different. Apess used shared Christian beliefs to bolster his argument and his rhetorical form is one of encounter between the Native and Christian cultures. Apess asked his white audience to look in the mirror and he was more direct in criticizing his audience. Although he does not base his writings on Scripture, he quoted Scripture later in the selection as support for his argument. His purpose was to “penetrate more fully into the conduct of those who profess to have principle”, and who tell us to “follow Jesus Christ and his ancient disciples” (Apess B: 156).
John Calvin read some of the ideas of Martin Luther, and as a result, he was inspired to abandon the Catholic Church and become a reformer as well. John Calvin believed in the concept of predestination, which means that prior to an individual is born, even if an individual was good or bad in life, God has already assigned whether for an individual to go to heaven or hell for their afterlife. John Calvin was a humanist since he “Withdrew from mediaeval theoretical or allegorical explanations of the contradictions between Classical and Christian views” and he portrayed “An emphasis on human potential, linked to respect for the individual mind and ethical exercise of “free-will” (Taylor, Lecture 3, Slide 14). John Calvin used the printing press to his advantage to spread his view of humanism to others, and his ideas ended up spreading all over Europe. People had no idea of how to get to heaven, therefore; they had to believe in this idea even though it was inaccurate.
Edwards really lets the message of “Gods wrath” sink into our minds to show how mighty, powerful, and capable the Lord is. The Lord gives us many opportunities to rely on Him and when we need his love and mercy the most. People ignore that and believe they can be their own gods. This is not right because Jesus says in John 14:6 “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one can come to the father except through me.” Meaning that the only way to not end up in Hell is to except Jesus Christ into your heart.
The movie Beowulf and Grendel takes the classic Beowulf, which mentions God and fate frequently, and gives him a more modern ideology. The movie makes Beowulf out to be somewhat agnostic and skeptical towards God showing how our cultures have changed through time from being ardently religious and relying on fate, to religion playing a lesser role and fate not determining everything. In the epic, Beowulf speaks frequently about how God aided him in his struggles and battles. For example, when Beowulf comes back to Heorot after killing Grendel’s mother and decapitating Grendel, he begins to tell Hrothgar what happened when he was battling Grendel’s mother. He said that it was a hard and potentially fatal battle and that, although his sword Hrunting is a very tough sword, he could not use it in battle (his intense strength would break the normal sword).
In “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” by Ken Kesey, he presents a character named R.P. McMurphy. Kesey parodies the biblical figure Christ with McMurphy with subtle references throughout the novel.However, even though he is compared to a Christ symbol that doesn’t mean he behaves like one. McMurphy is seen as a Christ symbol, not only because of references, but because of his gradual self-growth throughout the novel that allows him to embrace his “divinity” and help others. McMurphy is a mockery of the figure Christ because Christ was a humble, charitable, giving, honorable man who was pure and Mcmurphy is the opposite of that.
(John Irving, pg 729) Which is exactly how John became a believer through Owen’s persistent of God’s eminent power within the natural world. The novel even states within the first sentence that “[Owen Meany] is the reason I believe in God; I am a Christian because of Owen Meany”. It was Owen’s view of life and death and him sacrificing himself that lead John to think differently about God which in the sense is consider a rebirth. A rebirth for John in believing in
In Chapter II of The Gnostic Gospels, “One God, One Bishop”, Pagels outline how the Orthodox Christians seek to exclude the Gnostics with a creed that confirms one true God. Pagels intent is to describe how both religions differentiate in their meaning of how God shows his sovereignty. The creed was to help identify the Orthodox from the Gnostics “by confessing one God, who is both “Father Almighty” and “Maker of heaven and earth” (28). The Gnostics claim the Orthodox Christians worship a false God because of their “all-good” God creating a fallen world. Through discovering texts in history, Pagels support a claim from Marcion (a dualist) who believes there are two different Gods.
The Jehovah’s Witnesses were a group of people of the Christian movement. They believed that God is the creator and supreme being, they view god as the father, an invisible spirit separate from the son Jesus Christ. This religion was begun eighteen seventy and is still practiced today. However, their life and religion were threatened during the reign of Hitler and the rising of the Nazis power. Hitler thought that he was the supreme being, not God, and so he imprisoned those how did not believe that he was the greatest.
McGrath states, “Yet the tone of his writings of the early 1920’s is unquestionably atheistic… Severely critical if not totally dismissive of religion in general and Christianity in particular” (McGrath 131). This proves that he was in fact atheist at one point in his life and his Christian beliefs may not have affected his writing at all. He even has atheistic remarks in his book Mere Christianity; he says, “My argument against God was that the universe seemed so cruel and unjust” (Lewis 38). His beliefs actually had a huge impact on his writing. McGrath says, “Yet whether one thinks Christianity is good or bad, it is clearly important- and Lewis is perhaps the most credible and influential popular representative of ‘Mere Christianity’ that he himself championed” (McGrath xi).
When working in the science fields there are many obstacles a person of faith may face. The biggest of these is the controversy over the concept of evolution and how the world came into being. Atheists and evolutionists are always trying to find ways to disprove God with science. However, after spending several years learning about how nature and chemicals work together to form our world it is hard for me to imagine that all of it came into existence without a creator. Throughout this book the author, Darrel R. Falk, argues from his personal journey as a professing evangelical Christian and biologist, that only science, and not scripture, can reveal the details of creation.
He particularly uses the fictional religion of Bokononism and again the quote “Call me Jonah….They called me John” to highlight the fallacy in the belief, following and creation of religion as well as the saving grace which religion possesses. The name of John may be intended to echo that of two Biblical prophets, John the Baptist and John of Patmos. The former foretold the coming of Christ and ended up dead for his troubles. The latter saw elaborate visions of the end of the world but did not truly understand them. The John of Cat’s Cradle is also a prophet of the latter type as he does not truly understand the end of the world.
It also includes Shadrach, Meshach, Abendigo who refused to obey Nebuchadnezzar’s immoral laws, Amos the extremist for justice, and Martin Luther who was another example of a religious extremist (6). His historical examples include Socrates who was punished for challenging people to think, and John Bunyan, who was a writer that published The Pilgrims Progress (6). His political examples include Abraham Lincoln who was an extremist for ending slavery, and Thomas Jefferson who was extremist for equality for all men (6). He also used direct quotes to emphasize his claims and to show how big his knowledge base is (9). He also uses the Jesus and religious examples because his audience is the clergymen who value the Bible and preach it for a living.
In part two, Marsden bolsters his point about how democracy was also harmed by the opponents of fundamentalism by incorporating the book of Daniel into the text. He goes on to explain how the iron and clay feet of the image in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream in Daniel 2 signified the (soon to be) League of Nations in the eyes of dispensationalists (opponents of fundamentalism). This led them to conclude that democracy was weak. Such use of Scripture to back up a Biblically based way of life is both vital and powerful. Perhaps, the most frightening aspect of this book is the ever-darkening depravity of American culture.