The Factors And Effects Of Urbanization In Africa

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1.0 Introduction
Urbanization is a composite term; that generally indicates the growth of a town. According to (Paddison, 2001) and (Tacoli, 2006), many authorities define an ‘urban area’ using population size thresholds, population size coupled with population density, the proportion of the population engaging in non-farm activities, through administrative or political status of an area, or using a list of areas defined as ‘urban’ in census reports. Peng, Chen, and Cheng (2000) on the other hand explicate urbanization as the process through which rural areas become urban; or as towns and cities expand due to economic development. Demographically, it implies the redistribution of people from rural places to urban areas (Obudho, 1996b).
The world is undergoing rapid urbanization. At the global scale, more people currently reside in urban areas than rural areas (UN Habitat & UNECA, 2008). The population balance between urban and rural areas has been shifting over time. In 1930 for instance, only 30% of the global population was urban and by 2008, half of the world’s population was urban (Soja & Kanai, 2007). Currently, the urban population stands at 54%; a proportion projected to rise to 66% by 2050 (UNDESA, 2014).
In Africa, the urbanization scene is similar to the global context. Since the 1996 proclamation of the Habitat Agenda and the Istanbul Plan of Action, the demographic domain of Africa has undergone profound growth, both at the rural and urban scales (Kharas & Biau,

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