As an American from the Midwest, the image that comes to mind of life on a Caribbean island is of paradise and tranquility. It’s a place to escape and not have to deal with long winter months of snow and freezing temperatures. A place one could enjoy beautiful beaches, tropical trees and foliage year round. Everyone has their own perspective of things whether they’ve experienced it first hand or formed an opinion based on things they’ve formed based on resources or second hand information. In Judith Ortiz Cofer’s poem, “On the Island I Have Seen” she provides a glimpse of what life in Puerto Rico is like from a unique perspective. She was born in Puerto Rico, but growing up she moved back and forth between Puerto Rico and America. In an interview she shared: “But I think culture is very complex. You could say that I’m Puerto Rican by birth. I certainly enjoy and appreciate my heritage, and have used a lot of my culture for my art and incorporated it into my life” (Kevane and Herdia, 753). The experience allowed her to see life in Puerto Rico from through a different lens. The use of imagery contributes to the theme of the poem which illustrates the struggles of life on the hot Caribbean island.
In Chapter 1 and 2 of “Creating Black Americans,” author Nell Irvin Painter addresses an imperative issue in which African history and the lives of Africans are often dismissed (2) and continue to be perceived in a negative light (1). This book gives the author the chance to revive the history of Africa, being this a sacred place to provide readers with a “history of their own.” (Painter 4)
David Dabydeen’s Turner, is a postcolonial response to the authors of colonial atrocities. Dabydeen attempts to convey within his poem a society haunted by the injustices of the past which have been denied recognition and redemption from the prosecutors and historians themselves. Drawing on theoretical concepts of postcolonialism, hauntology and mid-mourning, Dabydeen’s Turner, attempts to highlight the agony and powerlessness of those who were, currently, and will soon be subject to, to overcome the curse of past injustices. Focusing on the physical and psychological marks the colonial project placed and continues to place on the body and psyche of the drowned slave, the narrative of agency being gained through death is problematize.
Before becoming a full time poet and novelist margarita angle was a normal girl. Margarita grew up in Los Angeles and spent time with her extended family in Cuba during the summer (Margarita Engle).Margarita Engle raises awareness about Cuban culture and Cuban history through her literary works The Surrender Tree, The Poet Slave, and Drum Dream Girl.
In Julia Alvarez’s Antojos, is about a young Dominican American women named Yolanda who is visiting her homeland and family in search of her antojos or cravings which leads her to not only cultural confrontation between American and Dominican ways but being able to reconnect with her native identity.
Beloved, the novel by African-American writer Toni Morrison is a collection of memories of the characters presented in the novel. Most characters in the novel are living with repressed painful memories and hence they are not able to move ahead in their lives and are somewhere stuck. The novel, in a way, becomes a guide for people with painful memories because it is in a way providing solutions to get rid of those memories and move ahead in life. The novel is divided into three parts; each part becomes a step in the healing ritual of painful repressed memories. The first stage is the Repression of memories. For example, Sethe, throughout the first and the second part of the novel is haunted by the memory of murdering her child. The second step is the painful reconciliation with these memories. This happened when Beloved, the ghost of Sethe’s murdered child comes back in their lives. The third step is the clearing process which takes place in the end of the novel where Sethe tells Paul D about the murder she committed. These three steps not only apply to the individual memory but also to the collective memory. In this novel, the memory of an individual is not just his or her memory; it’s actually the memory of a community that has gone through the same pain, cruelties and humiliation. That is, Sethe’s character represents every black woman who was tortured, raped and whose children were taken away from her.Thus, her character represents the pain that every black woman in
In the story of Julia Alvarez “A Genetics of Justice,” the sentence “ No flies fly into a closed mouth” develops the idea of silence. This quote basically explains, if you stay quiet or not talk then you will prevent yourself from getting yourself in trouble. Silence was the effect in the story because it had many Haitians shook and traumatized from Trujillo’s evil and cruel rules. Due to Trujillo’s rule it damaged many Haitians physically and mentally. For example, Trujillo killed a bunch of innocent people. As a result, these people were afraid to speak because they didn’t want to expose themselves from being at risk or in danger.
Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston can be characterized as an African-American novel; at least, according to Toni Morrison’s criteria for this genre of novel, it can be. Morrison claims that for a novel to be categorized as African-American, it must contain three things: a “community commenting on or responding to the action,” “the presence of an ancestor” who provides insight and wisdom to the main character, and “an oral quality.” This novel contains all three of these criteria in the forms of characters like Nanny Crawford and the porch-sitters, and in Janie’s oral telling of her story to her friend Pheoby Watson. Through these characteristics, Their Eyes Were Watching God makes a connection to traditional African storytelling
This unprecedented global tragedy claimed millions of lives over four centuries, and left a terrible legacy that continues to dehumanize and subjugate people around the world to this day. The forced movement of West Africans across the Atlantic to the Caribbean happened on cutting-edge scale of brutality and inhumanity, killings and massive abuses. Millions died without a burial, without a trace. These Europeans paid no monetary price for their progress, but they incurred a terrible cost in the form of the of the root racism that we still battle today. The slave trade left an ineradicable mark. Considering the enormous historic proportions and impact, it is a cruel irony that little is known about the slave trade. That is why today is so
Hatred. Truthfulness. Corruption. Poverty. Ugly. A Small Place authored by Jamaica Kincaid is consistent with these words. Her work showed great passion illustrated through rude language to demonstrate her experiences. She, one of many people, experienced struggle and pain throughout her childhood. Now she shares the story of Antigua, her home. By viewing through the Postcolonial, Marxist, and New Criticism lenses, the reader is able to perceive Jamaica Kincaid’s perspective on the changes. In Jamaica Kincaid’s essay, A Small Place, her intent for the reader is to become aware of Antigua's past becomes more purposeful when considering how colonialism affected Antigua’s political future, the hierarchy of power, and her use of literary elements.
Georges Woke Up Laughing: Long-Distance Nationalism and the Search for Home. By Nina Glick Schiller and Georges Eugene Fouron. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001. x + 324 p., photographs, notes, bibliography, index, ISBN 0-8223-2791-0 pbk.) “Georges woke up laughing”, begins this book. It continues with Fouron’s (one of the authors) recollection of his “wonderful” dream about Haiti, which first brings joyous emotions but is eventually replaced with sadness, as he realizes that he “had been dreaming of a Haiti that never was” (1). This introductory anecdote tersely but poignantly evinces the nostalgia that is at the core of this subject matter; it conveys the homesickness that many immigrants feel, which often transforms their memories of their native lands into idealizations. However, this story is not simply about the nocturnal workings of Georges’s subconscious but, as is
On a cold winter’s day (February 29), the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts was in for the shock of its life (pg. 64). Hundreds of French and Indian individuals invaded this town with tremendous force resulting in a horrific outcome for its habitants (pg. 64). Many were slaughtered, taken captive, and some tried their hardest to get away from the attackers as quickly as possible (pg. 64). Some of the most prominent captives taken from Deerfield were Reverend John Williams and his family (more specifically his daughter Eunice and son Samuel) (pg. 66). In contrast, at the head of the Deerfield raid was a man from New France by the name of Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville (the son of Jean-Francois Hertel de Fresniere) (pg. 209). He was the commander that led the attack of a 200 men army on Deerfield (pg. 209).
In The Marrow of Tradition, Charles Chesnutt tells the story of social inequity in the Reconstruction period of the late 1800s. He uses a variety of distinct characters, reaching from high-minded white extremists to vindictive blacks. There is an overall theme of racism and how it affected both whites and blacks after the civil war, specifically in the South and the Willimington Massacre. This book being about slavery and the exploitation of black people made this novel interesting.
The Farming of Bones, by Edwidge Danticat, takes place in the Dominican Republic during the 1930’s-40’s. During this time period, a wicked Dominican dictator, Rafael Trujillo, ordered the massacre of Haitian people living in the Dominican Republic. The novel follows Amabelle, a young Haitian woman, and the adventures and struggles she encounters during the Parsley Massacre. Death is an important subject throughout the novel, and is often foreshadowed and represented using motifs such as wood, both for the characters in the book and by the author. Specifically, cut wood is used as a motif following the deaths of both Joel and Rafi. Uncut wood planks, on the other hand, served as a motif for Amabelle and Yves’ ability to elude death
As Ruther has written about the creation stories, you have to wonder if all the stories about non-human and human nature have made an impact on this earth and, how people view other religions beliefs. It is stated that it is “suggested that human females are relatively or absolutely better at mutuality than human males. They further suggested that there was an original social order in which women and female modes of relationality dominated, and all was benign between the genders and in the human-nature relationship” (Ruether 143). This paper will examine and describe how various creation narratives influence gender parity.