They wish to analyse the workings of patriarchy in all its manifestations, desire to think in terms of pluralities and diversities rather than unities and universals and articulate ways of thinking about gender without simply reversing the old hierarchies or confirming them. In order to achieve these goals, postmodern feminist writers have exerted their energies to deconstruct the past, reconstruct a more
However, in postmodern fictions there is other attempting to define the concept of gender identity in light of the psychological perception. Carter’s postmodern feminist assumption emphasizes the role of the psychological aspects in forming individual’s gender identity. For example, in School of Sympathy (1948) Nancy Roberts defines identity as, “who we think we are who we tell our-selves we are or ought to be” (p. 19). She suggests that gender identity is a sense that we try to form. Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19).
Introduction Cultural relativism is the principle that the beliefs and activities of each person must be understood in the culture itself (Bayley, 1992). Feminism is a movement and ideology to fight for equality for women in the political, economic, cultural, private space and public space. Feminism was never an ideology of hatred ( Beasley, 1999). Since cultural relativism and feminism are two different things, many different critiques of cultural relativism and feminism in international human rights occur. Those critiques come from cultural relativists and feminists.
According to her book, Gender Troubles, Judith Butler, a "gender-theorist-turned-philosopher-of-nonviolence", as she puts it ("Judith Butler"), defines gender as a cultural construct with defining features that must be followed, which is distinct from sex, a biological attribute. However, the construct of gender leads to conflict for those portraying and repelling it. An example of such conflict surrounding gender is described by Nicholas Krist
Cultural relativism is a perspective who believes that culture is the source of all human rights. Culture is a community trust is a reliable source to become a pillar of human rights. Cultural relativism also believes that every country has different cultures and also will have a view of human rights that is different effect on each country. Feminism is a movement against the rejection of the views or suppression of women 's rights (Karen, 1988). Feminism is aware of the gender inequality in society and in the family, among others in the form of oppression and exploitation of
Looking the perspectives from each side should be appropriate, for the common opposition that they face. Reitman argues that both relativists and feminists see themselves as the minority in pursuing their interest, and often both are either antagonized or ridiculed when facing the majority (patriarchic hegemony for feminism and western powers for relativists) in the international community, and also the values that they share are fundamentally similar, as a form for the respecting differences, whether if it’s religion, culture, or sex. Reitman took a perspective of feminism personally, and from an outsider perspective, Reitman believes, although speaking naively, that relativists can reach a comprise in understanding between with feminism, so long as the concept of how women of the culture receives more empowerment in their own society, so much as a give-and-take situation. And if they do so, relativists would have the chance to seek endorsement from feminists in the international society, in order to maintain their way of life, without being antagonized or culturally imperialized by the western
The trajectory of postfeminist representations and resistance in Sarah Joseph’s Oorukaval in the background of Chela Sandoval’s theory of oppositional consciousness, forms the purview of this paper. The evolution of Sarah Joseph’s feminist politics closely parallels the history of modern feminism in Kerala. The concept of feminism has been much debated over and misunderstood in Kerala as it is elsewhere. Fighting against odds, it has come a long way shifting paradigms from the site of gender inequality to that of a political mobilization, organizing debates around differences. That is to say, feminism today is influenced not only by struggles against gender discrimination, but by struggles against class, race, and cultural hierarchies.
It is usually known how families related through blood are considered more important. This idea of the different level of importance of family relations considered by female youths could help us to understand how their personal obligations and in-depth experiences drive female youths in underprivileged
In order to fight against the socially constructed gender biases, women have to fight against the system that requires more strength. Such strength comes from the process of empowerment and empowerment can come from the education. Hence, it is of foremost importance to raise the level of educated women. Empowerment can be viewed as means of creating an environment where one can take decisions and make choices
Due to these reasons, they require empowerment of all kinds in order to protect themselves and to secure their purity their dignity, and their respect. To sum up, women empowerment can not be possible unless women come with and help to self-empower themselves. We noticed that there is a need to formulate reducing feminized poverty, promoting education of women, and prevention and