Fidel Castro had always had communist values in him when he overthrew Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, which Castro took the place of. Cuba was not doing well as a country and the people were easily oppressed. Ties with USSR led to stronger communist feelings that the United States did not favor. Fidel Castro contributed to the already high tensions in the Cold War by letting the Cuban Missile Crisis occur, struggling
The Cubans were going to overthrow the government and rebel against the Cuban people. Kennedy did not give support for air assistance for the invasion which made him look vulnerable. This caused damage to America’s reputation around the world. JFK was constantly worried about nuclear war between the soviet union and United States. The Cuban missile crisis was said to be his fault.
In 1979, religious fundamentalists dethroned the Shah and took 66 American hostages from the U.S. embassy. The group would return the hostages in exchange for the Shah’s return to Iran in order to stand trial for his crimes. President Jimmy Carter attempted diplomacy and a military rescue of the hostages but did not succeed. Carter became aware of the consequences of the nation’s dependence on foreign oil and delivered a State of the Union Address. Carter stated, “Our excessive dependence on foreign oil is a clear and present danger to our Nation 's security.” The dependence on foreign oil escalated to endangerment of American lives.
In 1952 the US got involved after Nicaragua solicited U.S. assistance to overthrow the Guatemalan leader, Jacobo Arbenz Guzman. President Truman authorized the shipment of weapons and money to anti-Arbenz groups. But, within five weeks the operation to topple Arbenz quickly fizzled when representatives loyal to the president uncovered the plot and took steps to solidify their power. Later Eisenhower sought to defend American interests abroad with an increase in funds for nuclear weapons and covert operations. After that, convinced that Arbenz threatened U.S. national security because of his alleged Communist sympathies, Eisenhower approved the first-ever clandestine military action in Latin America.
According to document D in 1962 “The soviets began shipping 40,000 troops, 60 missiles and 158 nuclear warheads to communist Cuba.” However, U.S spy planes soon identified evidence of the nuclear missile sites being rapidly installed in Cuba. As a result, the U.S quarantined (set a zone around) Cuba where ships carrying weapons could not go. If Cuba had missiles, they could threaten other countries and make them submit to Cuba which would result in them becoming communist. Numerous Soviet transports stopped dead in the water just outside the quarantine line. In April 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union came to an agreement.
This terrified the USSR 's leadership, who feared being surpassed by the USA. As a result, relations broke down very quickly, and soon a Second Cold War had started. Reagan 's approach to foreign policy also helped start the Second Cold War. The Reagan doctrine promoted containment of communism. This was made clear when Reagan declared that any Soviet advance on the Persian gulf would be met with a nuclear response.
In an attempt to overthrow Castro and prevent the spread of communism throughout Latin America, Kennedy was forced to implement “a watered down plan inherited from the Eisenhower administration” , which involved using CIA trained Cuban rebels to encourage an anti-Castro uprising which would then appear as an internal uprising. This resulted in what historian Theodore Draper described as a “perfect failure” On April 17th 1961, 1500 rebels landed on the Bahia de Cochinos however invaders were swiftly captured or killed and as Kennedy refused to send in USA troops and cancelled a planned air strike in order to feign lack of American involvement, the plan ended in “total humiliating defeat” . Kennedy was enraged that he had signed what he had seen as an “unworkable plan” and that he had “allowed himself to be swept along by sheer bureaucratic momentum” . Despite this he took full responsibility for the failed operation stating in a news conference on March 21st 1961, that while “victory has a hundred fathers, defeat is an orphan” . The Bay of Pigs ‘damaged US relations with foreign nations enormously” and “encouraged Khrushchev’s adventurism” resulting in increased Cold War tensions that demanded the President’s full
The Cold War caused people to question the United States’ government’s reliability and strength, which negatively affected America’s domestic affairs and foreign policies. Citizens lost respect and trust in the government and other civilians, due to several threats within the country and worldwide. People were left questioning their rights and safety due to the second Red Scare, which threatened the coming of power of communism within America. Various forms of propaganda advertised fears, causing panic to spread throughout the country. Russia’s gain of power throughout Eurasia showed off the USSR’s strength and abilities, threatening the Western Powers.
When American supported for Israel, the Middle Eastern Oil Producers was unhappy with US’s diplomatic actions hence to stop oil exports to US. In this oil crisis, the energy price was increasing as a result of decrease on supply, which eventually led to inflation. Besides, the production of American manufacturing declined and the trade deficit with Japan and German increased. Between 1960 and 1980, the proportion of American labors in manufacturing dropped from 38% to 28%. This change derived from the employers turned to mechanizing production and eliminating jobs to reduce the labor costs under the high-wage union manufacturing jobs.
Countering these threats, Castro formed an alliance with the Soviet Union and allowed the Soviets to place nuclear weapons on Cuba, sparking the Cuban Missile Crisis—a defining incident of the Cold War—in 1962. After negotiating, the missiles were removed with the US promise of never invading Cuba. Castro could now develop his political ideas without fear of a US invasion. As the Head of Cuban Armed Forces and later the Prime Minister of Cuba, he pushed through radically changing reforms such as the redistribution of wealth among the poor. Together with Che Guevara, Fidel Castro developed a new theory; The New Man's Theory, which was basically that Cubans should no longer work for personal benefits, but for the good outcome for everybody in the society.