The Crusades What were the crusades? The crusades were a series of wars between the Catholics and the Saracens which surprisingly we call Muslims now. The crusades started in 1095 when Pope Clermont preached the first crusade. In this exciting paper I will be talking about the different crusades and the effect they had in the middle ages. In the next paragraph I will talk about the first crusade then in the following paragraph, I will talk about the second crusade.
“Were the Crusades successful in achieving their aim of reclaiming Jerusalem and maintaining the Christian presence in the Middle East (Anatolia) and the Crusader States, and how are the Crusades relevant/similar to recent events taking place in the Middle East such as America’s war on Terror and Jihadism.” The Crusades were a series of holy wars declared by the officials of the Catholic Church on the Muslim expansion and Seljuk Turks who had taken over the holy lands. Crusaders were sent off to Israel to reclaim these lands and strengthen the Christian presence in Anatolia however they were not successful in maintaining their holds and crusades following the first crusades can be considered failures. The First crusade was declared by Pope
Centuries before the Crusades War, in the 3rd Century, the Catholic Kingdom and Byzantine Empire were united through the name of the Roman Empire. However, in 287 CE, the Roman Empire had grown immensely, up to the point where it was absurd for the Emperor to govern all the provinces, only in Rome. Due to this, Diocletian, the Emperor of the Roman Empire divided the empire into two parts: the west and the east. The west of Rome was considered poor, in contrast to the prosperous East, due to the utilization of the Black, Red, Caspian, and Mediterranean Sea. Proceeding to the 11th Century, various strong Germanic Tribes invaded the Roman Empire, leading to the official split of the Roman Empire - into Catholic Western Europe and Eastern Byzantine
For example battle of Dorel against the Turks and Seljuk on 1 July 1097, when a small amount of crusaders won a crushing victory over many thousands of Muslims. Obviously Urban II was important figure during the First Crusade. He knew how to persuade people, so that they believed that he was right. That is why morale was a strong weapon of Christians, which was very useful to achieve their goal. Interestingly some historians like John Ward said that the First Crusade and following campaigns is a “movement of violent white supremacist colonialism”.
The Cruades were a number a military attacks sanctioned by various Pope 's during the Middle Ages. The first Crusade began in 1095, the second crusade began in 1147, and the third crusade began in 1189. The first crusade started in s1095 with Jersualem, the Holy Land, under the control of the Seljuk Turks. The Byzantine Emporor Alexios I felt threatened by the Muslims and pleaded to the Western world for militairy support to fight against the Seljuk Turks. At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II gave his famous sermon beckoning the Christians to join together with the Byzantines and recapture Jerusalem, from the Muslims control.
A short background about the religious aspects of the crusades is in the initial motivation for them to be executed in the first place. Regarding Christianity, the Crusades were missions that the Christians in Europe took in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries
Crusades were military expeditions that occurred during the twelfth and thirteenth century. The Crusaders were in conflict with Islam for thousands of years. The main reason and goal for the crusades were to conquer the Holy Land, Jerusalem. However, they were not able to achieve that goal. The Crusaders were unsuccessful in the short-term; however, they were successful in the long-term.
Military advancements throughout the Crusades helped Western Culture unite larger areas and unite all kings of Europe. The Pope and popular kings easily united the less important kings and rulers of Europe so that all of the Christian Europeans could battle together against the Muslims. Throughout the process of the Crusades, Christian theology developed as several people could more easily influence all Europeans while they were united. As the men of the Crusades fought for Jerusalem, they spread their religion and publicized European life to the Muslims and people in the Holy Land. However, through that process, the theology slightly changed as it spread to different regions.
The Crusades Then Crusades are one of the biggest social injustices because of how many Muslims the Christians killed, which is estimated to be anywhere from the thousands to the millions of Muslims both armed and unarmed. In the Crusades so called “Christians” went to the Holy Land and slaughtered so many Muslims. Some simply because they were soldiers fighting back and some only because they were Muslim. Because they were scared that these people might actually switch to this religion which they considered terrible. Due to it conflicting with Christian teachings and how violent their teachings were.
In Crusader Castles, Hugh Kennedy takes a strong approach that Crusader Castles are the pinnacle 12th and 13th century engineering. He explains that European castles which are often garrison by a local lord or vassal did not have to be built to the highest stand, unlike their counterparts to the east who would have to be built to perfection of the highest standard. They needed to be able to withstand brutal assaults from siege weaponry and armies ranking in the tens of thousands much more frequently than anywhere in Europe. Kennedy’s book is useful because it divides the crusaders castles into discrete areas and fits them into context of history and the part that they play in them. Something interesting that I have not commonly seen in other sources is his chapter on siege warfare and how it developed throughout the crusade.