In their Introduction to Text Linguistics, De Beaugrande and Dressler (2002) state that intertextuality “concerns the factors which make the utilization of one text dependent upon knowledge of one or more previously encountered texts”. In other words, it denotes the interconnection that exists within texts, which not only include literature, but embrace all kinds of contexts. The technique of referring to other works is frequently used in Willy Russell’s Educating Rita and Alan Bennett’s The History Boys. Both set in England, they tell different stories under the same broad theme of education. Educating Rita follows the development of a young working class hairdresser Rita and her relationship with her middle aged professor Frank.
Through intertextuality, Mailer seeks to distance himself from both the formula of the realistic novel and that of essentially referential “journalistic impartiality”. The two intertexts intertwine historically in an attempt to perpetuate what Barthes called the "referential illusion," that is, the exclusion of the subject for the sake of the object. In other words, both intertexts presuppose the idea of a cohesive world to be discovered under neutral intermediation of an anticipating subject, simply an observer. In opting for an open, fragmentary, and frankly subjective character, Mailer depends on a metafictional strategy, together with parody mockery, and hilarious mood, to mock the Time reporter and the alleged impartiality and reliability
The intertextuality is the significant critical thinking of the 1960s. It is one of the principles and tools of the critical approach, by which the text can be read in the light of the questioning of the interpretations of its marks, which raises the problem of productivity, through which the artistic work is produced in relation to other works. To a set an earlier text. In other world the intertextuality is a new text from previous texts and a summary of texts that have become compatible with each other. Only its impact remains.
According to Linda Hutcheon, metafiction abuses the fixed notions and conventions of both realism and modernism by turning to itself and to history. Such a narrative is “contextual and self-reflexive, ever aware of its status as discourse, as a human construct” (A Poetics 53). A major feature of metafiction is its critical and renewing reflection of its own devices and practices. It aims “simultaneously to create a fiction and to make a statement about the creation of that fiction,” and this practice brings the traditionally distinct modes of literary creation and criticism together (Waugh 6). It functions implicitly or explicitly as a theory of fiction, usually in a self-conscious way.
Intertextuality-where one text makes explicit or implicit reference to other texts or textual systems—does not necessarily entail a rewriting project. While all counter-discourse is intertextual, not all intertextuality is counter-discursive. By definition, counterdiscourse actively works to destabilise the power structures of the originary text rather than simply to acknowledge its influence. Such discourse tends to target imposed canonical traditions rather than pre-existing master narratives which ‘belong’ to the colonised culture. Hence, when Vijay Mishra comments that ‘we may indeed claim that all Indian literary, filmic and theatrical texts endlessly rewrite The Mahabharata’ (1991:195), he is using ‘rewriting’ less as a marker of counter-discourse than of intertextuality: all other narratives in India have as context and influence The Mahabharata but the master text itself is not particularly targeted for strategic reform.
Others may be based on long forgotten events and people, and will have no meaning except for speakers within culture. 7- Metaphorical language, this strongly associated with literary language. Metaphors often play a crucial part in the coherence of a poem or a novel; if the metaphor carries different connotations or has no equivalent in the target language, this can
The Theory of Intertextuality Intertextuality a term derived from the Latin intertexto, meaning to intermingle while weaving was first used by French semiotician Julia Kristeva in essays such as ”Word, Dialogue, and Novel,” in the late sixties. In this essays, she parted ways with traditional notions of the author’s influence and the sources of text’s , asserting instead that the fabric of all signifying systems, from simple objects like table settings to much complex ones like poems are created by the manner in which they transform earlier signifying systems. Thus a literary work is the product of it’s relationship to other texts and to language structures itself rather than the product of a single author. ”Any text,” she argues, ”is
Inter-textuality in young readers as a sign of comprehension One of the challenges of reading any illustrated book today is having the required references to take full advantage of what the author is trying to say. Inter-textual hints have always been present in literature, enabling new worlds to be made out of old texts (Lundin. 1998). It is frequent to find in stories, words that refer to other readings, phrases that evoke images captured at other times and spaces, forms and figures in illustrations that connect to styles, works and other appreciated artists. Consequently, it is not the same to face a book with a “blank head” instead of doing it full of experiences that allow the reader to seize up all text and graphic details that today 's authors tend to slip into their own works.
Elizabeth Gorney, marketing associate and manager for Oxford University Press, argues that textism is a “whole new way of thinking about language” (Gorney). Instead of destroying English, it is either creating a variation of English, or it is a new language on its own (Gorney). Textism is a new language because of the significant differences that exist between standard English and the English used in texting. They differ in grammar and spelling conventions, and textism reflects the 21st century. According to Dr. Peggy Drexler, professor of psychology at Cornell University, texting parallels the way people communicate in the world today, which is “quickly, economically, and on the go” (Drexler).
The ability to construct the meaning of a text, through various strategies, is known as comprehension. For a reader to successfully comprehend a text, they must first extract the meaning of what was read, analyze it, interpret it, and make it their own. This process is interactive and strategic, because the reader is using multiple approaches to grasp the information. Connecting the new information from a text to old non-visual information from their schema is a crucial aspect of comprehension that readers must do. To make sense of the new information, the reader must integrate the material into their schema of connected information.